Advances in human papilloma virus vaccines: a review

Akhilesh Tomar, Anjali Kushwah


Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women and third leading cause of cancer death. Approximately 500,000 women worldwide develop new cases of cervical cancer annually, with 80% of these new cases occurring in developing countries. Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is the main factor associated with the development of cervical cancer.  The currently available HPV vaccines, gardasil and cervarix, can prevent infection by certain HPV types, but not all. At present, research efforts are being devoted to developing broader spectrum preventative vaccines, as well as therapeutic vaccines. To confer additional therapeutic activities, chimeric vaccines have been developed.  Multivalent vaccine technologies employ strategies for addressing a broader spectrum of HPV types or for combining HPV with other pathogens. Edible vaccines are also disclosed.  For needleless immunization, jet gun, gene gun and microneedles have been developed.  Biodegradable and mucoadhesive polymer-based vaccine formulations have been developed to deliver vaccines through the mucosa and enhance immunogenicity. Various viral vectors of recombinant HPV DNA vaccine are disclosed. 


Cervical Cancer, HPV, Vaccines

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