International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology <p>International Journal of Basic &amp; Clinical Pharmacology (IJBCP) is an open access, international, peer-reviewed journal. The journal's full text is available online at The journal allows free access to its contents. IJBCP publishes important advances in pharmacology that include basic and clinical studies of all aspects of pharmacology in human, animal and cell-line studies. The journal also accepts articles on traditional medicine. The journal has a broad coverage of relevant topics across pharmacology including ethics, research methodology, data management, drug utilisation, regulatory, teaching and biostatistics. IJBCP is one of the fastest communication journals and articles are published online within short time after acceptance of manuscripts. The types of articles accepted include original research articles, review articles, case reports, conference abstracts, general articles in the field of basic and clinical pharmacology, new drug updates and letters to the editor. It is published every <strong>two months</strong> and available in print and online version. IJBCP complies with the uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals, issued by the International Committee for Medical Journal Editors.</p> <p><strong>Issues: 6 per year</strong></p> <p><strong>Email:</strong> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p><strong>Print ISSN:</strong> 2319-2003</p> <p><strong>Online ISSN:</strong> 2279-0780</p> <p><strong>Publisher:</strong> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Medip Academy</strong></a></p> <p><strong>DOI prefix:</strong> 10.18203</p> <p>Medip Academy is a member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc. (PILA), which operates <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CrossRef (DOI)</a></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Manuscript Submission</strong></p> <p>International Journal of Basic &amp; Clinical Pharmacology accepts manuscript submissions through <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Online Submissions</a>:</p> <p>Registration and login are required to submit manuscripts online and to check the status of current submissions.</p> <ul> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Registration</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Login</a></li> </ul> <p>Please check out the video on our YouTube Channel:</p> <p>Steps to register and submit a manuscript:<br /><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p>Problem Logging In-Clear cookies:<br /><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p>If you find any difficulty in online submission of your manuscript, please contact editor at <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Abbreviation</strong></p> <p>The correct abbreviation for abstracting and indexing purposes is Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Abstracting and Indexing information</strong></p> <p>The International Journal of Basic &amp; Clinical Pharmacology is indexed with</p> <ul> <li><a href="[Title+Abbreviation]" target="_blank" rel="noopener">PubMed and PubMed Central (PMC)</a> (NLM ID: 101637479, Selected citations only)</li> <li><a href=";journalId=31381" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Index Copernicus</a> </li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Index Medicus for South-East Asia Region (WHO)</a></li> <li><a title="Scilit (MDPI)" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Scilit (MDPI)</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CrossRef</a></li> <li><a href="http://localhost/index.php/ijbcp/index" target="_self">EBSCO A-to-Z</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Ulrichsweb</a></li> <li><a href="http://localhost/index.php/ijbcp/index" target="_self">Journal Index</a></li> <li><a href="http://localhost/index.php/ijbcp/index" target="_self">Medical Journals Links</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Scholar</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">J-Gate</a></li> <li><a href="http://localhost/index.php/ijbcp/index" target="_self">Directory of Science</a></li> <li><a href="http://localhost/index.php/ijbcp/index" target="_self">Electronic Journals Library (EZB)</a></li> <li><a href="http://localhost/index.php/ijbcp/index" target="_self">Gale</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">JournalTOCs</a></li> <li><a href=";issn=23192003&amp;uid=rfc285" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ResearchBib</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ICMJE</a></li> <li><a href=";fIDnum=|&amp;mode=simple&amp;letter=ALL&amp;la=en" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SHERPA/RoMEO</a></li> </ul> <p> </p> en-US (Editor) (Editor) Fri, 23 Feb 2024 18:51:18 +0530 OJS 60 General anaesthesia for laparoscopic umbilical hernia repair in a patient with pseudocholinesterase deficiency: a case report <p>Pseudocholinesterase deficiency is a condition that causes prolonged muscle weakness when succinylcholine or mivacurium is used as a neuromuscular blocking agent. It can be either inherited or acquired. The practice of not using these two muscle relaxant agents may suggest that PED is not a significant problem for general anesthesia. This case report describes the successful discharge of a patient with a preexisting diagnosis of PED who underwent laparoscopic umbilical hernia repair under GA with neuromuscular monitoring without complications.</p> Buğra Aykenar, Nedim Çekmen Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology Fri, 23 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0530 Pharmacokinetics of amphotericin B after accidental overdose in an adult critically ill patient treated with plasmapheresis: a case report and review of literature <p>Amphotericin B is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent that is used in the treatment of systemic fungal infections. We describe the case of a 62-year-old female patient with recent aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage who was treated for suspected ventriculitis and a fungal coinfection. Instead of liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB), 465 mg (5 mg/kg) amphotericin B deoxycholate (DOC) was inadvertently administered, leading to refractory shock with multiple organ failure and requiring mechanical ventilation. Since an overdose of amphotericin B can lead to fatal consequences and has a half-life of 15 days, plasmapheresis was started. The serum concentration decreased from 1.32 µg/mL to 0.62 µg/mL before plasmapheresis, demonstrating a mean half-life of 49 hours. After two plasmapheresis sessions, the serum concentration further dropped to 0.26 µg/mL, demonstrating a mean half-life of 17 hours. In contrast, the third plasmapheresis session had no effect on serum concentration. The patient made a full recovery, potentially facilitated by enhanced amphotericin B elimination through plasmapheresis. Positive outcomes were previously reported in two adult patients treated with plasmapheresis. However, other reports without plasmapheresis described fatal outcomes in adult patients, albeit with a twofold overdose compared to the two patients successfully treated with plasmapheresis. Moreover, plasmapheresis itself carries risks such as hypocalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and coagulation deficits. Consequently, the role of plasmapheresis in amphotericin B overdose is still debated.</p> Jos A. H. Van Oers, Jessica D. Workum, Bram M. Voorzaat, Tessa C. C. Jaspers Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology Fri, 23 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0530 Case report on anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatitis and pancreatitis <p>Tuberculosis (TB) is a widespread infectious disease primarily impacting the lungs but with potential effects on various organs, such as bones, kidneys, and intestines. This case underscores a rare yet serious complication associated with anti-TB drug (ATD) treatment-the development of drug-induced acute pancreatitis. In this instance, a 65-year-old male undergoing ATD therapy exhibited symptoms including fever, vomiting, and fatigue. Despite receiving medical intervention, including intravenous antibiotics and hepatoprotective drugs, the patient's condition progressively worsened, ultimately resulting in a fatal outcome. This case emphasizes the crucial significance of early identification and effective management of such complications, highlighting the necessity for vigilant monitoring and regular assessment of liver function tests throughout ATD treatment.</p> Karan Krishna Kurup, Soorya N., Atul Hareendran, Swathi Ajithan, Sneha P. V. Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology Fri, 23 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0530 Antibacterial effectiveness test and characterization of ethanol extract of bandotan herba against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa <p><strong>Background: </strong>The bandotan plant has been officially recognized by the world health organization (WHO) as a traditional medicinal medicine. The Chinese government has officially recognized the bandotan plant as having health-promoting and longevity-enhancing properties. The content of several secondary metabolites of this bandotan plant, such as alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, and saponins, makes this plant have significant potential as an alternative to traditional therapy. This research aims to evaluate the bactericidal efficacy of the ethanol extract derived from the bandotan herb against <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>bacteria.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The test was conducted using agar diffusion and streaking methods, with the test sample concentration being taken into account. The test results demonstrated that the ethanol extract of herba bandotan, at a dosage of 300 mg/mL, possesses inhibitory effects on the development of <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria</em>.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The concentration required to kill <em>Staphylococcus aureus bacteria</em> by 50 mg/mL is achieved with a percent reduction of 98.27%. Similarly, a concentration of 75 mg/mL is needed to kill <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria</em> with a percent reduction of 96.36%. Lastly, a concentration of 100 mg/mL can effectively eliminate <em>Staphylococcus aureus bacteria</em> with a percent reduction of 99.24%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The study's findings indicate that the ethanol extract derived from the bandotan plant had bactericidal and bacteriostatic properties against <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria.</em></p> Khaira Banu, Anayanti Arianto, Urip Harahap Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology Fri, 16 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0530 Evaluation of antimicrobial, thrombolytic and cytotoxic activities of ethanol flower extract of Bauhinia acuminata <p><strong>Background: </strong>To develop the herbal drug with the least side effects, there are superior opportunities to discover the medicinal and other biological properties. Natural products serve as sources of beneficial chemical molecules. For this study, Bauhinia acuminate (Family: Fabaceae) having some pharmacological activities was chosen. The present studies was designed for the antimicrobial, thrombolytic and cytotoxic activity of ethanolic flowers extract of Bauhinia acuminata.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The antimicrobial effect of the extracts was evaluated by Disc-Diffusion Assay Method and the cytotoxic activity was determined by brine shrimp lethality test. The thrombolytic activities of the plant extracts were evaluated by a method using streptokinase as a reference standard.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The extract has mild antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, enteropathegenic <em>Escherichia coli</em>, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio mimicus. The zone of inhibition of the extract was measured comparing with standard Tetracycline. Thrombolytic activity of flowers of Bauhinia acuminata showed mild (14.57%) clot lysis while the standard streptokinase showed (90%). Having moderate cytotoxic activities, the mortality rate of brine shrimp was observed in increasing order with the increasing of concentration of extract. In the present study of the ethanol extract LC50=3.251 µg/ml and LC90=286.57 µg/ml. However, Standard control LC50=0.0036 µg/ml and LC90=0.75 µg/ml were found respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Through the studies, it can be concluded that the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia acuminata could be used in drug formulation or pharmaceutical application. Hence, the plant may further be explored for its various pharmacological activities.</p> Abdul Malek, Kawsarul Mostafa, Sumaiya Rahman, Sophia Hossain Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology Fri, 23 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0530 Effect of Murdannia edulis Faden roots on serum prolactin level and mammary glands of lactating female albino rats <p><strong>Background:</strong> <em>Murdannia edulis </em>(Stokes) Faden (Myit-Cho in Myanmar) is a herb which has widely been used to induce or increase lactation by ethnic groups living in Tamu township of Sagaing division in Myanmar. This study aimed to explore the effect of <em>Murdannia edulis</em> on serum prolactin level and mammary glands of the lactating female rats.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The type of the study was laboratory based experimental study. Thirty-six lactating dams were divided into six groups of 6 lactating rats in each group (n=6), namely group I (normal saline) as control, group II (5 mg/kg metoclopramide) as standard, groups III and IV (1 gm/kg and 2 gm/kg watery extract of <em>Murdannia edulis</em>), groups V and VI (1 gm/kg and 2 gm/kg ethanolic extract of <em>Murdannia edulis</em>), respectively. The extract and the drugs were orally administered from day 4 to 15 of lactation. At 16 days of lactation, the heart blood of lactating dams was collected under chloroform anaesthesia and serum prolactin level of dams was measured by using ELISA kit. The histological changes of mammary glands of the rats were also assessed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The significant higher serum prolactin level were seen in ethanolic extract 2 gm/kg body weight treated group when compared to control. Histology of mammary glands in ethanolic extract treated rats showed stimulation of lobuloalveolar cell development.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The lactogenic activity of the roots of <em>Murdannia edulis</em> may be due to promoting prolactin secretion and lobuloalveolar cell development of mammary glands.</p> Kyaw Zwar Htoon, Khin Phyu Phyu, Tin Tin San, Khin Ohnmar Kyaing Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology Fri, 23 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0530 Combination of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) leaf extract with metformin on blood glucose and total cholesterol levels of albino rats induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin <p><strong>Background</strong>: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia due to impaired insulin secretion, often accompanied by hypercholesterolemia. Metformin is a first-line antihyperglycemic drug that is often combined with other antihyperglycemic drugs. Purple sweet potato leaves have been widely studied to reduce glucose and cholesterol levels.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This study was an experimental study using rats induced with a high-fat diet and streptozotocin, which were divided into 8 treatment groups, namely groups given CMC Na 0.5%, Metformin 45 mg/kg BW, Purple Sweet Potato Leaf Extract (SPLE) 200 mg/kg BW, SPLE 400 mg/kg BW, SPLE 800 mg/kg BW, SPLE 200 mg/kg BW with metformin 45 mg/kg BW, SPLE 400 mg/kg BW with metformin 45 mg/kg BW, and SPLE 800 mg/kg BW with metformin 45 mg/kg BW.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: After treatment for 28 days with SPLE doses of 200 mg, 400 mg, and 800 mg/kg BW, both single doses and combinations with metformin showed a decrease in fasting blood glucose levels and total cholesterol, which were statistically significantly different (p&lt;0.05) between treatment groups using the one-way ANOVA. The combination of SPLE 800 mg/kg BW with metformin normalized blood glucose levels of 93.50±4.93 mg/dl.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The combination of purple sweet potato leaf extract with metformin is more effective in reducing blood glucose and total cholesterol levels compared to the single administration of metformin and SPLE.</p> Marselina Saing, Urip Harahap, Panal Sitorus Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology Tue, 02 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0530 The results of using the combination of letrozole and misoprostol in comparison with laminaria and misoprostol in preparing the cervix for miscarriages under the second trimester of pregnancy <p><strong>Background: </strong>Therapeutic abortion in the second trimester pregnancy is the choice treatment in cases with severe anomalies or intrauterine fetal death. It can be done by a number of medical (e.g. misoprostol and letrozole) or mechanical methods (e.g. laminaria). The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of vaginal misoprostol with and without letrozole and combination of misoprostol and laminaria for preoperative cervical ripening among women with under second trimester abortion.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>In this interventional study, 80 pregnant women in the second trimester pregnancy (Gestational age under 20 weeks) were randomly divided in two groups (n=40). One group received vaginal misoprostol in combination with laminaria and oral placebo and other group received vaginal misoprostol in combination with letrozole. Patients regularly examined every 4 hours and in the absence of abortion, vaginal misoprostol repeated after 4 hours. No report of products of conception abortion considered as complete abortion and the patient discharged. Data collected in a cheklist and then analyzed by statistical methods in SPSS version 21.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Complete abortion was reported in 70 (87.5%) of all patients which in group letrozole+misoprostol in 34 (85%) and in laminaria+misoprostol was reported in 36 (90%). 6 (15%) Curettage was reported in group letrozole+misoprostl and 4 (10%) in laminaria+misoprostol and the difference were not statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Results showed that both of combination are effective in the abortion but misoprostol in combination with laminaria is recommended for the induction of second trimester therapeutic abortion.</p> Soureh Sheikham, Firouz Amani Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology Fri, 23 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0530 A retrospective and observational study of the adverse drug reactions reported in a tertiary care hospital <p><strong>Background: </strong>Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is considered a common cause of prolonged hospitalization and death among patients. Pharmacovigilance is essential in the surveillance of adverse drug reactions. The responsibility of a healthcare professional is to report any adverse reaction that occurs with the use of drugs. This helps in providing a database and improving the safety of patients. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of ADR, assess causality, severity, and preventability of the submitted adverse drug reactions, increase the awareness of preventability of adverse drug reactions in health care professionals by conducting regular workshops on ADR, and document occurrence of a rare ADR.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A retrospective observational study was conducted to assess the ADR reported to the ADR monitoring Centre, for the past 6 years included in the study. The data were entered into Microsoft excel and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Mean and standard deviation were calculated for the categorical data. Drugs were classified according to the class. Reactions were analyzed using scales and presented in descriptive statistics.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 95 ADR reports were received and reported. These ADRs were associated with a total of 108 drugs that were prescribed- the occurrence of ADRs dominated among females 60% (57). Antimicrobials were causing the highest number of adverse reactions 21 (19.44%) and antituberculosis drugs and radiocontrast media were associated with the following larger number of the ADRs 19 (17.59%). Intravenous at 40% was the most common route related to the development of ADR. The most common ADR caused by antimicrobials was rash (9), antitubercular therapy commonly caused hepatitis, and chills and rigors were more common with radiocontrast media. Most of the reactions observed in the patients were moderate reactions at 52.63% with 3.16% fatal ones.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> In this study, the predominant causative drugs associated with ADR were antimicrobials, antitubercular drugs, and radiocontrast media. The number of ADRs reported though was less there was a wide range of drugs causing ADR that were reported which gave a broader spectrum for analysis. There is a requirement for active monitoring of ADRs to understand the occurrence as well as help in prevention.</p> Veena Rani Vemuri Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0530 Mechanistic insights into the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of alcoholic extracts from Curcuma longa <p><strong>Background: </strong>Aim of the study was to scientifically validate the traditional Indian claims of <em>Curcuma longa</em>'s (turmeric) antinociceptive (pain-relieving) and anti-inflammatory effects.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The alcoholic extract of C. longa was tested in three rodent nociceptive models: acetic acid-induced writhing: examines visceral pain, formalin test: evaluates both acute and chronic neurogenic and inflammatory pain and tail immersion test to assess thermal pain. The extract's effects were compared to a control group and morphine (reference drug).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> <em>C. longa</em> extract significantly reduced abdominal constrictions in the acetic acid test (59.36% inhibition). In the formalin test, the extract significantly decreased paw licking response time in both early (54.12% inhibition) and late phases (78.59% inhibition). <em>C. longa</em> extract significantly increased the tail flick reaction time in the immersion test, indicating pain relief.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This study confirms the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of <em>C. longa</em>, providing scientific evidence for its traditional use in pain management.</p> N. Nagamani, V. J. Sharmi, K. R. Subash Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology Thu, 11 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0530 Natural treasures from Picrorhiza kurrooa: a computational exploration of drug-like properties and bioactivity of kutkin, cucurbitacin, apocynin and lupanine <p><strong>Background:</strong> To analyse and predict the basic pharmacokinetic and toxicological properties of four compounds of interest found in <em>Picrorhiza kurroa</em> (Kutkin, cucurbitacin, apocynin and lupanine) using computational bioinformatics tools.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The chemical structures and molecular properties of the compounds were obtained from authentic sources and processed for data profiling. 2D structures were converted to 3D structures using ChemSketch software and PHASE module. <em>In silico</em> screening of the 3D structures was performed using bioinformatics prediction software to assess drug-likeness, absorption, blood-brain barrier penetration, enzyme interaction potential, skin penetration, and acute oral toxicity.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Kutkin exhibited poor drug-likeness and low oral absorption, while the other three compounds showed promising drug-like properties and good oral absorption. Cucurbitacin and lupanine were predicted to cross the blood-brain barrier, while Kutkin and Apocynin were not. None of the compounds were substrates for P-glycoprotein, but Kutkin and cucurbitacin were substrates for CYP3A4. All four compounds had low skin penetration. Acute oral toxicity varied, with cucurbitacin classified as highly toxic and the others as slightly toxic.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Cucurbitacin, apocynin, and lupanine have potential for further development as therapeutic agents due to their favorable drug-like properties and good absorption. Kutkin's poor drug-likeness and low absorption make it less suitable for oral drug development. This information provides valuable insights for further research on the medicinal properties of <em>Picrorhiza kurroa</em> and the development of new drugs based on its active compounds.</p> G. Francis Britto, K. R. Subash, N. Nagamani Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology Sat, 20 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0530 Questionnaire-based assessment on knowledge, attitude and practice of fixed-dose combination in medical undergraduates of a tertiary care teaching hospital, Kanpur <p><strong>Background:</strong> Aim was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of second-year medical undergraduates towards FDC.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among second-year medical undergraduates of GSVM, medical college, Kanpur in the form of a pre-test, and after sensitizing the students about FDC, the same questionnaire was given as a post-test.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 251 students, 157 students participated in the pre-test and 140 participated in the post-test. The percentage of male students in pre and post-test were more (58% and 61.4%) compared to female students (42% and 38.6%). After conducting a post-test survey, there is a significant improvement in knowledge and attitude toward FDC.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The inclusion of FDC in the undergraduate curriculum is a good initiative by NMC but there is a need to conduct more CME, symposiums, and workshops in medical colleges to update the knowledge regarding FDC among medical undergraduates. </p> Virendra Kushwaha, Pooja Agrawal, Alpana Sahu, Pushpendra Pushkar, Nasreen F. Khan, Harsh Vekaria Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology Fri, 23 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0530 Learner’s perspectives and outcomes of peer role play as a teaching learning method for prescription communication skills in second year medical students at a tertiary teaching hospital in India <p><strong>Background:</strong> Medical education in India is experiencing a positive shift from traditional curriculum to competency-based medical education. Among the different initiatives, inclusion of role-play with specific aim of improving prescription communication skills in the current curriculum, could lead to beneficial patient- response outcomes. This study aims to evaluate the undergraduate medical student’s perspectives on implementing role-play for learning about prescription communication.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a cross-sectional observational study conducted in the department of pharmacology involving second-year medical students of Vydehi institute of medical science and research centre participating for a month-long duration. An internally validated questionnaire was used to assess students’ perspectives on role-play in prescription communication. The outcome was evaluated based on students’ performance in prescription writing and appropriate communication before and after the role-play session. The data obtained was analysed using the SPSS software.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean score for the overall benefit of role play for prescription communication for all responding participants (n=163) was 4.2 out of 5. In this study, 89.4% of students agreed that role-play in prescription communication should be an essential aspect of their training in the curriculum and is worth taking this additional effort. 84.6% of students found that, the sessions helped to understand and share the pharmacology concepts better. Mean pre and post role play prescription writing assessment scores in students was 7.59 and 9.01 out of 10 respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Role-play was well received by the students as a low-cost innovative teaching methodology for better understanding of Pharmacology concepts as mandated by the CBME curriculum. It helps in understanding the importance of teamwork and error-free prescription communication for future clinical practice. Overall, following appropriate demonstration, use of role-play showed significant improvement in student performance in prescription communication.</p> Meharban Asanaliyar, Latha Kamath, Ananya Chakraborty Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology Fri, 23 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0530 Medication error in general medicine department of tertiary care Koshi Zonal hospital in Nepal <p><strong>Background:</strong> Medication errors are the leading cause of patient harm, injuries and even death in hospitalized patients. It endangers patient safety and also increases the cost of treatment leading to enhanced financial burden to the individuals and the community as well. The study was aimed to determine the pattern of occurrence of medication errors.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted in 188 hospitalized patients in medical ward at a Zonal Hospital. Medication errors were identified and categorized by reviewing the cardex. The data were analyzed to determine the cause of medication errors including rates of harm to patients. The descriptive statistics frequency and percentage were calculated using Microsoft Excel 2007. The findings were presented as tables and graphs.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 985 medication errors were found in 650 (38.3%) drugs prescribed in 177 (94.1%) patients. Approximately 72.9% of the errors reached the patients and 32.39% of the errors were harmful. The most common observed errors were administration errors (41.6%) followed by prescribing errors (36.5%), transcription errors (14.3%) and monitoring errors (7.5%). Omission of prescribing information (63.88%) and wrong dosing schedule (34%) were the most common type of prescribing and transcription errors respectively. Omission of dosages administration (57.32%) to patients was the most common types of administration error. All types of medication errors were highest in the alimentary tract and metabolism class of drugs (32.39%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Medication errors were associated with the majority of hospitalized patients signifying the requirement of immediate preventive strategies and policies to ensure patient safety.</p> Mohammad Mustafa, Kajiram Adhikari, Anil K. Shah, Kadir Alam, Rajesh Jha, Deependra P. Sarraf Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology Fri, 23 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0530 Assessment of minimum inhibitory concentration to vancomycin, tigecycline, linezolid, daptomycin, ceftaroline and mupirocin against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates by antibiotic gradient strips <p><strong>Background</strong>: <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> infections are one of the most common and serious hospital-acquired infections seen in developing countries. Methicillin resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>(MRSA) is an important human pathogen and normally colonized in body parts including skin, nose, perineum and throat. MRSA is resistant not only to all β-lactam groups but also other antibiotics including aminoglycosides, tetracycline and macrolides. In the present study the efficacy of agents used in the management of MRSA infections was determined by antibiotic gradient testing.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A total of 60 clinical isolates of MRSA strains were collected from various diagnostic labs in central Kerala. Clinical isolates were reconfirmed as MRSA by gram staining, yellow-coloured colonies on mannitol salt Agar (MSA). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by disc diffusion method as recommended by CLSI guidelines. <em>S. aureus</em> isolates resistant to cefoxitin (30 µg) was identified as MRSA. Antibiotic gradient testing was performed to determine the MIC of vancomycin, tigecycline, linezolid, daptomycin, ceftaroline and mupirocin against MRSA isolates.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> All the 60 MRSA isolates tested were sensitive to vancomycin, tigecycline, linezolid, daptomycin, ceftaroline and mupirocin (100%) and none of the MRSA isolates show resistance. </p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Results of present study indicates that these agents may be used alongside vancomycin in management of infection caused by MRSA.</p> Aparna N., Devipriya P. R., Shilpa N., Fashna Premanandan, Anusree K. B., Saliha Sathar, Harish Kumar K. S. Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology Fri, 23 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0530 Knowledge, attitude and practice of pharmacovigilance among medical students <p><strong>Background: </strong>Spontaneous voluntary adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting is the backbone for the successful functioning of the Pharmacovigilance Programme of India. The aim of pharmacovigilance is to ensure safe and rational use of medicines, once they are released for general use in the society. Targeting the younger doctor for sensitization toward pharmacovigilance is the key to ensure practice of adverse drug reactions (ADR) reporting in clinical practice. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of pharmacovigilance among medical students at LLRM Medical College, Meerut, a tertiary care teaching hospital.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was carried out using a pretested questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to assess the KAP regarding pharmacovigilance. The medical students (2<sup>nd</sup> year, final year, and interns) were included in the study. Only the participants who gave their consent were included in the study. Results were calculated by proper statistical analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The current study was conducted in a LLRM Medical College, Meerut, which included a total of 250 medical students of which 40% 2<sup>nd</sup> year, 40% final year students, and 20% interns. Most of them (83%) accepted that reporting ADR is necessary, and pharmacovigilance should be taught in detail to health-care professionals.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This study demonstrated that knowledge of pharmacovigilance among medical students is improving gradually and pharmacovigilance and ADR reporting needs to be made compulsory, have better, interesting ways to learn and understand it, so that the students can practice it with confidence in their clinical practice.</p> Shaily Bhatt, Harshvardhan Kumar Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology Fri, 23 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0530 A prospective study on evaluation of antibiotics usage in patients with sepsis at a tertiary care hospital <p><strong>Background:</strong> Most developing countries are adopting antibiotic usage in sepsis. This study was conducted to evaluate the antibiotic usage in patients and to study medical adherence in high-risk patients. The study in particular aims to evaluate antibiotic usage in sepsis patients along with their related ADR’s. The study also aims to optimize the usage of antibiotics in high-risk patients at a tertiary care hospital.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Study was prospective and observational review of patients record in the hospital. Clinical notes, medication chart and electronic data management system at the hospital were used to analyse usage of antibiotics. Culture and sensitivity reports were obtained from relevant departments. Observations were then compiled and documented.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of 40 cases collected 22 (55%) patients were male and 18 (45%) were female. Majority of the study population belongs to 71 years and above with 15 (37.5%) followed by age group of 41-60 years with 14 (35%). Most frequently prescribed antibiotics were found to be meropenem 16 (21.33%) and piperacillin tazobactam 14 (18.67%). The most resistant antibiotic was found to be cotrimazole in 35 (87.5%). ADRs were found in 35% of all cases.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Prescribing patterns for antibiotics need to be optimized. Adherence to and update of the policy is also recommended. It was found that the adherence to hospital antibiotic policy is low.</p> H. S. Vanlalpeka, Blessy K. George, Balakeshwa Ramaiah Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology Fri, 23 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0530 Influence of SLC22A1 gene polymorphisms on gastrointestinal adverse effects with metformin therapy in South Indian type 2 diabetes mellitus patients <p><strong>Background: </strong>Metformin, a first-line agent in Type 2 diabetes mellitus, causes gastrointestinal adverse effects in 20-30% of patients, leading to discontinuation in 5-10% of them. Organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) encoded by SLC22A1, transports metformin from the enterocytes into the bloodstream. Reduced function OCT1 variants could lead to increased luminal concentration of metformin leading to gastrointestinal adverse effects. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms in the SLC22A1 gene were studied in this cross-sectional study with cases and controls. Objective was to determine the association between genetic polymorphisms rs628031 (1222A&gt;G) and rs622342 (1386C&gt;A) in SLC22A1 gene and gastrointestinal adverse effects to metformin therapy in South Indian type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The study was conducted in JIPMER, Puducherry, India in T2DM patients (n=300) of South Indian origin, who were categorized into case (N=100) and control (N=200) groups, based on their gastrointestinal tolerance to metformin. DNA was extracted from the patients using whole blood by phenol-chloroform method and genotyping was done using real-time PCR.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Minor allele frequency of rs628031 (A allele) and rs622342 (C allele) were 33.8% and 26.5% respectively. Genotype frequencies did not differ significantly between the case and control groups (rs628031, p=0.45, rs622342, p=0.28). Female gender (AOR 3.77; 95% CI 2.07, 6.85; p&lt;0.001) and proton pump inhibitor usage (AOR 7.66; 95% CI 3.01, 19.47; p&lt;0.001) had higher association with metformin intolerance.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> No significant association was found between the genotypes of single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs628031 and rs622342) in the SLC22A1 gene and gastrointestinal adverse effects to metformin therapy in South Indian type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.</p> Lakshmi Balasundaram, Jayanthi Mathaiyan, Suryanarayana B. S., Sadhish Kumar Kamalanathan Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology Fri, 23 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0530 Study of utilization of antimicrobial drugs and its resistance pattern in patients with septicemia at a tertiary care hospital <p><strong>Background:</strong> Many types of bacteria can produce septicemia. The most common infections that lead to septicemia are urinary tract infections, <a href="">pneumonia</a>, nephritis and abdominal infections.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study aims to assess the pattern of antimicrobial drugs used in septicemia and to assess the etiological organisms and their drug sensitivity and resistance pattern. Study participants admitted to tertiary health care centre and who are having septicemia were included in this prospective observational study. Blood culture, bronchial secretions were subjected to microbiological analysis. The etiological organisms, their drug sensitivity and resistance pattern and the outcome of drug therapy were recorded. The clinical course of the study participants was monitored till cure either the resolution of pneumonia. Qualitative data were analyzed using the chi-square test or Fischer's exact test and quantitative data using the independent t test.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Mean duration of hospital stay in all patients 13.22±0.45 days and in resistance cases it was found 19.22±0.45 days. Mean duration of ICU stay in all patients was 4.34±0.45 days and in resistant cases mean duration of ICU stay was 8.18±0.45 days. Clinical outcome in overall admitted patients recovered was 97 patients (80.83%) death was 16 patients (13.33%). Clinical outcome in resistant patients recovered 16 patients (13.33%) and death 26 patients (21.66%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The organisms had a varied sensitivity and resistance pattern. The clinical outcome was multifactorial.</p> Apurva Anil Rayewar, Sandhya Shivajirao Hambarde, Rasika Purushottam Wanjari, Akshay Vishwasrao Bodke, Momin M. Abdul Mujeeb Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology Fri, 23 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0530 Uridine triacetate: the saviour in waiting, finally arrives <p>Cancer of the gastrointestinal tract is one of the very common solid cancers. Colorectal cancer is one of the types in which the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or its prodrug capecitabine is used. Toxicity to 5-FU or capecitabine is a common occurrence in patients receiving it. In such conditions, dose reduction or drug discontinuation for some time was the only way out apart from some supportive measures. An exhaustive search was always on to find a suitable antidote for the toxicity. The molecule uridine triacetate was studied for a long to be used in this condition. A systematic search of the existing literature about uridine triacetate was done with available sources like PubMed, Google Scholar, etc. Information about uridine triacetate was assembled and processed from these sources. Uridine triacetate was given orphan drug status for this indication a few years back. After a clinical trial, the drug was finally approved by the US FDA on December 11, 2015, for use in case of toxicity to 5- 5-FU or capecitabine. Well, stat Therapeutics has been marketing the drug under the trade name of Vistogard. Uridine triacetate works by preventing the toxic metabolite of 5-FU from entering and establishing itself in the RNA framework, by competing with the toxic metabolites. It is a relatively safe drug with minimal side effects. This article discusses the molecule uridine triacetate, its structure, metabolism, and kinetics in the body, the why and how of its action, and finally the results and findings of the clinical trial done with it.</p> Shruti Jaiswal Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology Fri, 23 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0530 Evaluation of orphan drug therapies and associated monitoring guidelines <p>Orphan drugs, designed for the treatment and prevention of rare medical conditions known as orphan diseases, are infrequently accessible due to their high costs and limited research. The prevalence of rare diseases varies across countries based on population demographics. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved over 770 drugs with 77 designations for orphan status. Some of these drugs, often discovered by the pharmaceutical industry, are both highly valuable and expensive. When using orphan drugs, specific parameters need to be monitored. Therapeutic monitoring should align with the patient's physical condition and the severity of the disease. This article aims to comprehensively examine the development of orphan drugs and their monitoring protocols.</p> Pandiarasu Bhavadharini, Suhaina A. Samath, Jabarulla Mohamed Ali Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology Fri, 23 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0530 A new horizon in Stargardt’s disease: a comprehensive rapid review of interventional therapies <p>This rapid synthesis comprised seven studies on inherited macular dystrophy, known as Stargardt disease, which primarily affects children and young adults and is caused by the breakdown of a particular type of light-sensing cell in the eye called ABCA4one database was selected, and search was carried out using the keywords Stargardt disease and interventional techniques by the application of the appropriate inclusion and exclusion criteria<strong>. </strong>Most studies were randomized controlled trials, and other systematic reviews and meta-analyses were included, which provided information about the study's methodology and results. The interventional therapies used in this review, including the use of saffron, docosahexaenoic acid, emuxistat hydrochloride, and biofeedback therapy, had a positive effect on Stargardt disease. Therefore, additional studies and syntheses, including controlled trials, case series, adequate sample sizes, and multiple centers, are needed in the future.</p> Smruti Besekar, Sangita Jogdand, Akansha Arewar, Suraj Dhankikar, Marvel Bhosle, Diptesh Besekar Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology Fri, 23 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0530 Supportive oncology: a blueprint for patient-centric care <p>The article emphasizes a paradigm shift toward patient-centric care while providing a thorough examination of the changing supportive oncology landscape. When a patient is diagnosed with cancer, they must not only deal with the medical effects of the illness but also manage difficult emotional, social, and practical issues. Understanding the critical role supportive care plays in improving cancer patients' overall quality of life, this book explores the essential elements of a patient-centric approach. Evidence-based procedures, recommendations, and the incorporation of patient viewpoints are all included in the suggested blueprint for patient-centric oncology care. Healthcare professionals may improve cancer patients' quality of life, foster resilience, and help create a more sympathetic and caring healthcare system by adopting an all-encompassing approach. In the end, the paper makes the case for the broad implementation of supportive oncology as a crucial part of cancer treatment, enabling patients to face their ordeal with dignity and resiliency.</p> Tavseef Ahmad Tali, Fiza Amin Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology Fri, 23 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0530