International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology https://www.ijbcp.com/index.php/ijbcp <p>International Journal of Basic &amp; Clinical Pharmacology (IJBCP) is an open access, international, peer-reviewed journal. The journal's full text is available online at http://www.ijbcp.com. The journal allows free access to its contents. IJBCP publishes important advances in pharmacology that include basic and clinical studies of all aspects of pharmacology in human, animal and cell-line studies. The journal also accepts articles on traditional medicine. The journal has a broad coverage of relevant topics across pharmacology including ethics, research methodology, data management, drug utilisation, regulatory, teaching and biostatistics. IJBCP is one of the fastest communication journals and articles are published online within short time after acceptance of manuscripts. The types of articles accepted include original research articles, review articles, case reports, conference abstracts, general articles in the field of basic and clinical pharmacology, new drug updates and letters to the editor. It is published every <strong>two months</strong> and available in print and online version. IJBCP complies with the uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals, issued by the International Committee for Medical Journal Editors.</p> <p><strong>Issues: 6 per year</strong></p> <p><strong>Email:</strong> <a href="mailto:medipeditor@gmail.com" target="_blank" rel="noopener">medipeditor@gmail.com</a>, <a href="mailto:editor@ijbcp.com" target="_blank" rel="noopener">editor@ijbcp.com</a></p> <p><strong>Print ISSN:</strong> 2319-2003</p> <p><strong>Online ISSN:</strong> 2279-0780</p> <p><strong>Publisher:</strong> <a href="http://www.medipacademy.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Medip Academy</strong></a></p> <p><strong>DOI prefix:</strong> 10.18203</p> <p>Medip Academy is a member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc. (PILA), which operates <a href="http://www.crossref.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CrossRef (DOI)</a></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Manuscript Submission</strong></p> <p>International Journal of Basic &amp; Clinical Pharmacology accepts manuscript submissions through <a href="https://www.ijbcp.com/index.php/ijbcp/about/submissions#onlineSubmissions" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Online Submissions</a>:</p> <p>Registration and login are required to submit manuscripts online and to check the status of current submissions.</p> <ul> <li><a href="https://www.ijbcp.com/index.php/ijbcp/user/register" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Registration</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.ijbcp.com/index.php/ijbcp/login" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Login</a></li> </ul> <p>Please check out the video on our YouTube Channel:</p> <p>Steps to register and submit a manuscript:<br /><a href="https://youtu.be/YHX7eUWH7bk" target="_blank" rel="noopener">https://youtu.be/YHX7eUWH7bk</a></p> <p>Problem Logging In-Clear cookies:<br /><a href="https://youtu.be/WVjZVkjB2SQ" target="_blank" rel="noopener">https://youtu.be/WVjZVkjB2SQ</a></p> <p>If you find any difficulty in online submission of your manuscript, please contact editor at <a href="mailto:medipeditor@gmail.com" target="_blank" rel="noopener">medipeditor@gmail.com</a>, <a href="mailto:editor@ijbcp.com" target="_blank" rel="noopener">editor@ijbcp.com</a></p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Abbreviation</strong></p> <p>The correct abbreviation for abstracting and indexing purposes is Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Abstracting and Indexing information</strong></p> <p>The International Journal of Basic &amp; Clinical Pharmacology is indexed with</p> <ul> <li><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog?term=%22Int+J+Basic+Clin+Pharmacol%22[Title+Abbreviation]" target="_blank" rel="noopener">PubMed and PubMed Central (PMC)</a> (NLM ID: 101637479, Selected citations only)</li> <li><a href="https://journals.indexcopernicus.com/search/journal/issue?issueId=all&amp;journalId=31381" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Index Copernicus</a> </li> <li><a href="https://imsear.searo.who.int/handle/123456789/149644" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Index Medicus for South-East Asia Region (WHO)</a></li> <li><a title="Scilit (MDPI)" href="https://www.scilit.net/wcg/container_group/7783" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Scilit (MDPI)</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.crossref.org/guestquery/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CrossRef</a></li> <li><a href="http://localhost/index.php/ijbcp/index" target="_self">EBSCO A-to-Z</a></li> <li><a href="http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/login" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Ulrichsweb</a></li> <li><a href="http://localhost/index.php/ijbcp/index" target="_self">Journal Index</a></li> <li><a href="http://localhost/index.php/ijbcp/index" target="_self">Medical Journals Links</a></li> <li><a href="http://scholar.google.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Scholar</a></li> <li><a href="http://jgateplus.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">J-Gate</a></li> <li><a href="http://localhost/index.php/ijbcp/index" target="_self">Directory of Science</a></li> <li><a href="http://localhost/index.php/ijbcp/index" target="_self">Electronic Journals Library (EZB)</a></li> <li><a href="http://localhost/index.php/ijbcp/index" target="_self">Gale</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.journaltocs.ac.uk/index.php" target="_blank" rel="noopener">JournalTOCs</a></li> <li><a href="http://journalseeker.researchbib.com/?action=viewJournalDetails&amp;issn=23192003&amp;uid=rfc285" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ResearchBib</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.icmje.org/journals-following-the-icmje-recommendations/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ICMJE</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/journals.php?id=2295&amp;fIDnum=|&amp;mode=simple&amp;letter=ALL&amp;la=en" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SHERPA/RoMEO</a></li> </ul> <p> </p> Medip Academy en-US International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology 2319-2003 Exploring the connection: endocrine disruptors and polycystic ovarian syndrome https://www.ijbcp.com/index.php/ijbcp/article/view/5546 <p>Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is heterogeneous endocrine disorder in females manifesting reproductive dysfunction and metabolic abnormalities. Endocrinopathy in the form of hyperandrogenism leading to alteration in clinical phenotype and fertility seen. Atherogenic dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance as a result of metabolic disturbance also encountered. Recent years, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are widely studied and linked for their alleged role in the development of PCOS. EDCs like bisphenol A (BPA), Phthalate, methoxychlor and chlorpyrifos which are present in many industrial as well as daily use products poses risk of development of various diseases. This review discusses the role of EDCS specially BPA in the pathogenesis of PCOS with study of interest identified and extracted from databases like Pub Med and Google scholars using MeSH keywords. BPA has estrogenic property and binds to oestrogen receptors α and β. Stimulation of ovarian theca cells and dysregulation of steroid biosynthesis leads to androgen overproduction. It stimulates GnRH Pulse generator, decreasing the level of LH hence fertility is affected. BPA also interact with adipose tissue receptors and causes differentiation, lipid deposition and inhibition of adiponectin. Its serum and urinary levels are found to be elevated in PCOS patient. In animal studies, it is found that BPA exposure causes impaired folliculogenesis, insulin resistance and DNA methylation. EDC exposure, especially BPA which is an integral constituent of many industrial and daily use items may cause PCOS possibly by altering androgen synthesis, adipocyte stimulation and epigenetic modification.</p> M. Shakir Hussain Ajit Kumar Mishra Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 13 3 403 407 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20241003 Truth in a pill https://www.ijbcp.com/index.php/ijbcp/article/view/5552 <p>In 1937, the elixir sulphanilamide disaster was one of the mass poisonings. It occurs due to the presence of the diluent diethylene glycol in the elixir preparation of sulphanilamide. Because of its therapeutic use, around 100 patients died. In response to the calamity, Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act was passed in the year 1938 by U.S congress and this ensured the proof of safety before the drug comes to market. The similar incident occurred for thalidomide in late 1950s and early 1960s when the drug was used for the treatment of nausea in pregnant women and resulted in children with birth defects. The development of drugs is a complex and costly process and it takes around 10-15 years for the drug to develop. Because of these reasons, the development of generic drugs is essential and this review will deal about the use of generic drugs and also its advantages with limitations.</p> Shambo S. Samajdar Shravan Venkatraman Shashank Joshi Kaushik Biswas Bharat Saboo Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 13 3 408 412 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20241004 Role of clinical pharmacist in drug utilization evaluation, medication adherence and pharmacovigilance https://www.ijbcp.com/index.php/ijbcp/article/view/5561 <p>A series of systematic, criterion-based drug evaluation known as Drug utilization review are conducted on a regular basis to ensure that medication is utilized appropriately. It’s a mean of learning more about the issues brought on by drug usage, if done properly, may help to solve the issues. Medication adherence generally refers to a patient’s ability to take prescription drugs as directed and their continued use of those drugs. The increasing body of research linking medication non adherence to unfavorable outcomes and increased healthcare cost has raised concerns among clinicians, healthcare institutions, and other stakeholders. Pharmacovigilance, in which the procedures keeping an eye on the assessing adverse medication reactions, is essential to clinical practice, public health and efficient drug regulating system. Aim of the study was wo study about the role of pharmacist in drug utilization review, medication adherence and pharmacovigilance.</p> Sanju T. Saji Prasanth V. V. Rishab Kumar Dagariya Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 13 3 413 417 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20241005 A review on potential adverse effects associated with Janus-kinase inhibitors https://www.ijbcp.com/index.php/ijbcp/article/view/5573 <p>Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, symmetrical, inflammatory autoimmune disease that affects small joints. RA has a population prevalence of 0.5% to 1% in the U.S. The annual cost of care for chronic treatment of RA in the United States is estimated at $12,509. Pharmaceutical companies have developed drugs to treat RA using Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors. These drugs can have potential adverse effects. Forecasting a better output to JAK inhibitors (JAKI’s). Therapy duration of JAKI’s and Problems regarding to strategies of dose reduction or if the discontinuation of therapy takes place in case of low disease activity. The accurate pharmacological profile and interactions of other drugs with JAKI’s have to establish. Proper safety, efficacy profile of JAKI’s and when administered in combination with DMARD’s. The safety, efficacy data of JAKI’s when compared to non-anti-TNF biologics. Obtaining of experience on JAKI’s that were already existed in the market and further experimental findings on newer compounds and which may clarify many of the aspects which are to be solved in nearer future as these JAKI will have greater application in treatment of RA. Regardless of significant developments in latest years in the pharmacotherapy of RA in the use of JAK inhibitors, yet the adverse effects of JAK inhibitors are unanswered. Therefore, one of the main concerns associated with JAK inhibitor is the potential adverse effects. The challenges can be addressed by clinical pharmacist mediated interventions related to dosing of JAK inhibitors and proper management of adverse drug reactions (ADRs).</p> Chennasamudram C. Kesavulu Yashmeen Nikhat P. Jutla V. Kumar Mydukuru Pooja Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 13 3 418 424 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20241006 A review on cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis https://www.ijbcp.com/index.php/ijbcp/article/view/5584 <p>A systemic inflammatory disease known as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is distinguished by excessive cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and death. Traditional CV risk factors may partially contribute to CV disease in RA. Shared inflammatory mediators, post-translational modifications of peptides/proteins and subsequent immune responses, changes in the composition and function of lipoproteins, increased oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction are some of the mechanisms that link RA and CVD. The detailed pathogenetic pathway by which this association between RA and CVD might be explained is still not entirely known. It is crucial for controlling cardiovascular risk in people with RA. Optimizing care of traditional risk factors in addition to those inherent to RA is necessary to lessen the burden caused by CVD. The potential effect of planned Cardiac risk management in these individuals is highlighted by findings for under diagnosis and inadequate treatment of conventional CVD risk factors in RA. Present cardiovascular standards suggest RA patients to be examined for and treated for CVD risk factors without appropriate treatment goals. Utilizing potent anti-rheumatic medications that can reduce disease activity and treating the conventional CV risk factors should both be part of the therapy of CV risk in RA. There is currently insufficient scientific data to develop therapy targets for RA-related CVD risk factors. Thus, more study is required on the traditional CVD risk factor screening and management in RA patients.</p> Ramya Balaprabha G. Sri Vaishnavi P. Harika Guptha M. Krishna Sree N. Rama Rao T. Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 13 3 425 432 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20241007 Eruptions in focus: cefadroxil and the uncommon realm of fixed-drug reactions: a case report https://www.ijbcp.com/index.php/ijbcp/article/view/5544 <p>This case report explores a rare case of localized fixed-drug eruption (FDE) induced by cefadroxil, a first-generation cephalosporin. FDE, characterized by recurrent lichenoid lesions at specific sites upon drug exposure, is an immunological cutaneous adverse reaction. The incidence of FDE due to cephalosporins is infrequently reported, making this case noteworthy. We present a 51-year-old male who developed brownish-black patches and painful blisters on his extremities after initiating treatment with Cefadroxil for a minor toe injury. The patient's symptoms, clinical course, and subsequent recovery are detailed. Treatment involved corticosteroids, antibiotics, and topical agents. The report also provides immunological insights into FDE pathogenesis, involving CD8+ memory T cells, cytokine production, and the role of CD4+ regulatory T cells. While the exact pathogenesis of FDE remains elusive, this report sheds light on the mechanisms contributing to the self-limited nature of these eruptions. Causality assessment using the Naranjo algorithm categorized the association between cefadroxil and FDE as probable. This case report contributes to the limited literature on FDE caused by cephalosporins and underscores the importance of recognizing and managing such dermatological reactions. The broader implications of understanding FDE pathogenesis and the rarity of cephalosporin-induced cases provides valuable insights for clinicians and researchers.</p> Palak Agrawal Rahul Kunkulol Kartik Dhananjay Ghodke Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 13 3 382 385 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20240996 Clozapine induced pneumonitis: a case report https://www.ijbcp.com/index.php/ijbcp/article/view/5545 <p>Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia. Clozapine acts by blocking serotonin receptors in the brain, thereby reducing the symptoms of schizophrenia. Clozapine is usually restricted to the treatment of resistant cases of schizophrenia. Clozapine induced pneumonitis is a very rare adverse reaction and, one such incident in a 16-year-old Indian boy is intricated in this case report.</p> Sandeep M. Sasi Piyush Nama Smita Sontakke Sanjivani Pande Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 13 3 386 388 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20240997 A case report on digoxin toxicity https://www.ijbcp.com/index.php/ijbcp/article/view/5565 <p>Digoxin is an inotropic drug that is commonly prescribed in patient with heart related diseases. The effective dose of digoxin is 0.8-2.0 ng/ml beyond which digoxin causes toxic effects like visual dysfunction, irregular heartbeat, and cardiovascular collapse. Digoxin toxicity is caused due to increased automaticity and inotropy due to intracellular calcium and decreased dromotropy due to poisoning of sodium potassium transporter and AV nodal blockade. Digoxin toxicity should be assessed by continuous hemodynamic and cardiac monitoring including 12-lead electrocardiogram. There should be timely and immediate evaluation of electrolyte levels like potassium, calcium, serum creatinine and digoxin levels and prompt intensive care unit admission, if necessary. In this case study we studied a 43 old female patient prescribed with digoxin 0.25 mg, who had a medical history of congestive cardiac failure presented with symptoms of digoxin toxicity. The patient was assessed with electrocardiography (ECG) and managed by keeping digoxin on hold and effective patient counselling.</p> Shaima Shereen Mohammed Fareedullah Raqshan Jabeen Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 13 3 389 391 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20240998 A splenic hydatid cyst in young female: a case report https://www.ijbcp.com/index.php/ijbcp/article/view/5566 <p>Splenic hydatid disease is a rare kind of hydatid disease, accounting for less than 8% of cases in humans. Here we present a case of 23 years old female patient came to hospital with chief complaints of pain radiating to left quadrant in the last 2 years and cough with sputum and nausea and admitted in the hospital for further evaluation. CT chest shows cystic mass in the left hypochondrium lateral to the stomach compressing the stomach, later did CT abdomen which clearly indicates the spleen is enlarged in size with well-defined hypodense non enhancing unilocular cystic lesion measuring 13×13×11 cm (CC×AP×TR) in the upper and mid poles.</p> Tadikonda Rama Rao Y. Vidhya Reddy R. Srujana Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 13 3 392 394 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20240999 Enhancing hemophilia A management: emicizumab as a cost-effective adjunct to standard therapy for inhibitor patients https://www.ijbcp.com/index.php/ijbcp/article/view/5579 <p>This case report discusses the cost-effectiveness of emicizumab + low dose recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) therapy in management of mild hemophilia A with inhibitors. Initial treatment with recombinant factor VIII was complicated by inhibitor development, leading to recurrent bleeding and hematoma formation. After administering full dose rFVIIa to patient for controlling bleeding episodes initially, patient was transitioned to emicizumab alongside low-dose recombinant factor VIIa, which proved efficacious and cost-effective. This case highlights the potential of emicizumab to alleviate the financial burden on patients and healthcare systems, improving treatment access and outcomes for a broader hemophilia patient population.</p> Vishnu Sharma Vansh Bagrodia Aayush Kulshreshtra Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 13 3 395 397 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20241000 Drug induced bullous fixed drug eruption: a case report https://www.ijbcp.com/index.php/ijbcp/article/view/5588 <p>Bullous fixed drug eruption, which is a cutaneous adverse drug reaction, is commonly seen with antimicrobials and analgesics. Bullous drug eruptions are infrequent, but because they pose a challenge both to affected patients and to treating physicians, they are considered to be the most severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR). It is important to recognize these conditions and to differentiate them from other clinical entities involving blister formation. There may be early signs and symptoms that indicate a severe bullous drug eruption even before blisters and erosions of the skin and mucous membranes become obvious. Once the diagnosis is suspected, appropriate diagnostic procedures and adequate management must be initiated. The latter includes identification of the potentially inducing drug, although it should be taken into account that not all cases of bullous eruptions are drug-induced. In cases with drug causality the potentially culprit agent must be withdrawn, while in cases with other aetiology the underlying condition, e.g. an infection, must be treated appropriately. In addition to best supportive care, immunomodulating therapy may be considered. Here we report 64-year-old male with bullous fixed drug eruptions due to doxycycline administration.</p> Tamil Selvi Emperumal Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 13 3 398 399 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20241001 Video assisted thoracoscopy surgery a viable alternative for duplication cyst excision: a case report on foregut duplication cyst https://www.ijbcp.com/index.php/ijbcp/article/view/5591 <p>Alimentary tract duplication is a relatively uncommon congenital abnormality. It can be found anywhere from the mouth to the anus and can be symptomatic or undetectable. Although congenital duplication can happen anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract, the ileum, oesophagus, and colon are the most common locations. The foregut, which includes the stomach, and first and second segments of the duodenum, is the source of one-third of all duplications. When foregut duplication involves the bronchial tree, respiratory symptoms are often present. Furthermore, excision through surgery is required for pathological examination of the resected specimen for definitive diagnosis. The most promising surgical approach for cyst excision has been thought to be open surgical resection through a posterolateral thoracotomy incision. However, video assisted thoracoscopy surgery has recently emerged as a viable surgical option for duplication cyst removal In paediatric surgery, video assisted thoracoscopy surgery has been established to facilitate the removal of mediastinal masses. However there is a limitation of research in the literature regarding the best surgical technique for oesophageal duplication cyst excision. In girls, foregut duplication is more common, especially in cases when bronchopulmonary involvement is present. While many duplications result in issues in early development, some are discovered by accident. When foregut duplication involves the bronchial tree, respiratory symptoms are often present. Haemoptysis and respiratory distress may be present in specific cases of the patient. Here, we described a 5-year-old male infant's case of foregut duplication with bronchial involvement and its management.</p> Anjana C. A. Priya Arun Chander Yadav Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 13 3 400 402 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20241002 Evaluation of nephrotoxicity effects of the methanol leaf extract of A. angustifolia in Wistar rats https://www.ijbcp.com/index.php/ijbcp/article/view/5559 <p><strong>Background: </strong><em>Agave angustifolia</em> is a common traditional remedy in localities for disease treatment. This study focussed on evaluating the nephrotoxicity activity of the methanol extract of <em>A. angustifolia </em>leaf.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Twenty-five Wistar rats of both sex were randomly shared into five groups. Group 1 received 10 mL/kg distilled water, group 2 gentamicin 80mg/kg, extract groups (3, 4 and 5) were placed on 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of <em>A. angustifolia</em> leaf extract administered orally through an orogastric tube for 14 days. The rats were sacrificed using chloroform, and their kidneys were harvested, weighed and immediately fixed in 10% buffered formalin for histological analysis and blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture for biochemical and haematological analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Results showed there was no marked difference in the levels of the packed cell volume (PCV) in all the concentrations of the extract as well as the controls. The gentamicin group showed a remarkable rise in the serum urea and creatinine level when compared to both the control and extract groups. Similar effects were observed in the 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of the extract. However, severe kidney injury was observed in the group treated with 400 mg/kg of the extract.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Despite the beneficial potential of <em>A. angustifolia</em>, it also exhibited toxic effects on the kidney thereby causing significant damage to the kidney morphology at higher doses. The damages inflicted in these tissues are dose-dependent. Therefore <em>A. angustifolia</em> should be taken in low doses within shortest period of time.</p> Joseph L. Akpan Paschal N. Wokota Sylvester C. Ohadoma Tharcitus C. Onwudiwe Casimir E. Okoroama Ogbonnaya N. Iganga Matthew O. Nwokike Godwin C. Akuodor Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 13 3 307 314 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20240984 Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding antimicrobial use and resistance among community members of Mtendere Township in Lusaka, Zambia: findings and implications on antimicrobial stewardship https://www.ijbcp.com/index.php/ijbcp/article/view/5550 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Antibiotic resistance is a public health problem affecting all countries and leads to an increase in morbidity and mortality rates. In Zambia, there is little information on the knowledge, attitude, and practices of community members about antibiotic use and resistance. This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) regarding antimicrobial use (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among community members in Mtendere township of Lusaka Zambia.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a cross-sectional study that was conducted from May 2020 to August 2020 using a structured questionnaire among 369 Mtendere residents. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Of the 369 participants, 50.9% were male and 62.1% were aged between 18 and 29 years. Overall, this study found a poor KAP (38% good knowledge, 58% positive attitudes, and 52% good practices) regarding AMU and AMR. More than half of the participants 66.7% (246/369) had heard of antibiotics, 33.6% heard of AMR, and 23% heard of antimicrobial-resistant infections. Most of the participants 48.2% were not aware that AMR is a public health issue. A total of 52.8% (195/369) of the participants said they did not take antibiotics without consulting a doctor or pharmacist, translating into a prevalence of self-medication of 47.2%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This study showed that Mtendere residents had poor KAP towards antibiotic use and resistance. There is a need to implement community-based interventional campaigns including antimicrobial stewardship programmes address the gaps in KAP identified in this study.</p> Steward Mudenda Namonje Simukoko Shafiq Mohamed Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 13 3 315 321 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20240985 Analysing adverse drug reaction patterns observed during district residency program: a prospective observational study https://www.ijbcp.com/index.php/ijbcp/article/view/5600 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) pose a substantial cost to global healthcare systems. The heterogeneous patient demographics and healthcare environments of district residency programmes (DRPs) provide special possibilities for detecting trends of ADRs. In order recognize recurring trends and related variables, this study will examine ADR incidents that occur during DRPs.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A prospective observational research with forty-three patients was carried out. Standardized reporting forms were used to gather data on ADRs, and descriptive statistical techniques were used to analyse the results. We evaluated medication information, patient demographics, and ADR features to seek for patterns and potential causes.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Preliminary analysis revealed a diverse range of ADRs observed during DRPs, spanning various severity levels and therapeutic classes. Common ADRs included gastrointestinal disturbances, allergic reactions, and central nervous system effects. Factors such as patient age, polypharmacy, and comorbidities emerged as potential predictors of ADR occurrence.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The panorama of ADRs seen during DRPs is clarified by this study, underscoring the significance of careful monitoring, and reporting mechanisms in these initiatives. Gaining insight into ADR trends and related variables can help in improving patient safety, simplifying drug management plans, and directing future educational initiatives for medical professionals.</p> Nandhini Devi Anil P. Hogade Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 13 3 322 325 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20240986 Heart rate lowering agents in acute coronary syndrome https://www.ijbcp.com/index.php/ijbcp/article/view/5549 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Heart rate is a key indicator of cardiovascular mortality, with ACS having the highest mortality risk when heart rate is elevated. With a target heart rate of &lt;70 bpm, it is crucial to evaluate the effects of medications that lowers heart rate.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> In this prospective observational study, 45 patients with ACS were studied, and it was determined whether or not the patients' heart rates at discharge from the hospital were within goal range. Additionally, we looked at demographics, drug-related issues, vitals and then statistical tests were performed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The demographic of 45 patients showed mean adult age was 47 years and most observed ACS was STEMI (53.3%). Patients prescribed with HRLA showed lower mean HR, SBP and DBP at discharge. Evaluated Optimal HR ≤70 bpm with HRLA therapy at discharge of the inpatients was achieved in 26.6% (63.5±5.5 bpm).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The current study showed HRLA therapy effectively reduced the heart rate at hospital discharge, but despite being on HRLA only 1/4th of patients achieved the optimal heart rate.</p> Prabhudev R. Banjara Balakeshwa Ramaiah Shreya P. Gudur Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 13 3 326 332 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20240987 Effect of add on therapy of SGLT 2 inhibitors on glycaemic parameters https://www.ijbcp.com/index.php/ijbcp/article/view/5551 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus can be difficult to attain, even with a combination of multiple oral agents as well as Insulin. SGLT2 inhibitors are potential novel agents inhibits the sodium glucose co transporters operated in the kidney tubules independent of the action on insulin resistance or secretion. This study aimed to evaluate the effect on the mean reduction of HbA1c levels. Also, to evaluate the effect of gliflozins on the mean reduction of FBS and PPBS values at the end of 3rd and 6th months and to find out the ADR profile over 6 months.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Prospective observational study conducted on the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with HbA1c &gt;7% not controlled on metformin in the outpatient over a period of 15 months. An initial visit and thereafter follow up visits at 3rd and 6th month. HbA1c, FBS and PPBS was noted. ADR profile was also noted.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Significant mean reduction in the glycemic parameters among 90% study population with 0.5% reduction in mean HbA1c from the baseline. Also, the reduction in FBS and PPBS were statistically significant by 3<sup>rd</sup> month of the treatment. Incidence of genital itching was more compared with conventional drugs. Hypotension and polydipsia were rare.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> SGLT 2 inhibitors are found to be a promising new category of antidiabetic medications with better control of FBS, PPBS and HbA1c.</p> Subashini Shanmuganandam Manjula M. J. Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 13 3 333 338 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20240988 A study of cutaneous adverse drug reactions in the dermatology department of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Gujarat https://www.ijbcp.com/index.php/ijbcp/article/view/5562 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Various drugs are responsible for different cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADRs). Considering variation in drug responses and the day-to-day increasing burden of ADRs, this study was done with emphasis on the need for effective evaluation and the reporting of the ADR reporting programme.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was an observational cross-sectional study conducted for the duration of six months in the dermatology department to evaluate various clinical patterns of CADRs.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 60 CADRs were reported. Among them, 51.67% were present in males and 48.33% were present in females. The most common CADR was FDE (35%), followed by macula-papular rash (25%). Antimicrobials were most commonly responsible for CADRs, followed by NSAIDs, antiepileptic, anti-gout, and anti-hypertensive medications.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> For better patient care, drug safety, and rational use of medicines, knowledge of various drugs responsible for CADRs can be useful for health care professionals to reduce mortality and morbidity by monitoring, reporting, and assessment of CADRs whenever detected.</p> Abhishek S. Kalola Shreya M. Shah Chirag B. Mistry Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 13 3 339 343 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20240989 Prevalence of self-medication practices in the Maharashtra population: a cross-sectional study https://www.ijbcp.com/index.php/ijbcp/article/view/5575 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Self-medication is a significant issue in public health, with varying global prevalence. It is one of the major causes of the emergence of antibiotic resistance in India. The study's objective was to identify the pattern, cause, and adverse events of self-medication in Maharashtra's urban and rural areas.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a pre-populated questionnaire; including information on age (18-85 years), non-prescription and prescription medication use. Age, gender, past medical and medication history, social history, and self-medication pattern, frequency, reason, source of information, and adverse events noticed as a result of self-medication are all sociodemographic questions on the questionnaire. A percentage analysis was used to examine the data.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Study states that out of 400 sample, 76% of the individuals self-medicate, with painkillers (49.4%), antacids (23.7%), antibiotics (15.3%), being the most often used drugs for ailments like headache, fever, bodily pain, and acidity. The top most medications taken for self-medication are paracetamol (53.1%), pantoprazole (30.43%), ondansetron (13.62%), and azithromycin (12.46%); 66.07% usage of prescription drugs as self-medication was found. The most frequent causes of self-medication were discovered to be mild illnesses, the easy accessibility of medications, and chemist recommendations, 8% of those surveyed had adverse events, and sources of information were chemists, past prescriptions, family members, and acquaintances.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>In Maharashtra, self-medication is a prevalent practice that primarily utilizes over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. As a result, consumers should be made aware of the hazards of antibiotic resistance and other pharmaceuticals.</p> Prerana P. Kulkarni Tanvi S. Madane Anjali Kumbhar Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 13 3 344 350 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20240990 Assessment of frequency and factors associated with low back pain among undergraduate medical students in Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute: a cross-sectional study https://www.ijbcp.com/index.php/ijbcp/article/view/5577 <p><strong>Background: </strong>A large percentage of young adults suffer from low back pain. Due to their demanding curriculum, medical students are most susceptible. This study aims to assess the frequency and factors associated with low back pain among undergraduate medical students at a college in Bangalore.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> An online cross-sectional study using a questionnaire was conducted among undergraduate medical students at Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute. SPSS 26.0 was used to analyze the data with a significance level of p &lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Of the 250 students enrolled, 45.6% had low back pain. Long hours of sitting were the common factor aggravating the pain. The logistic regression analysis revealed that Phase 3 (part 2) MBBS (OR=2.53, 95% CI: 1.34 - 4.66), overweight (BMI&gt;25) (OR=3.03, 95% CI: 1.42-6.50), coffee consumption regularly (OR=1.761, 95% CI: 1.007-3.009), Family history of LBP (OR=5.900, 95% CI: 3.182-10.939), duration of exercise/sports 1-2 hours per week (OR=1.691, 95% CI: 1.023-2.794), spending &gt;8 hours for electronic gadgets daily (OR=2.02, 95% CI: 1.14-3.59) were found to be independently associated with low back pain. These results demonstrate an increased risk of low back pain among medical students with high BMI, lack of physical activity and increased electronic device usage.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> It highlights the necessity of focused treatments to control stress, minimize extended periods of sitting, enhance physical activity, and support proper posture among medical students. By preventing and managing low back pain, medical students can improve overall performance and quality of life.</p> Viswanathan S. Geetha A. Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 13 3 351 357 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20240991 Knowledge attitude and practice of materiovigilance among healthcare professionals in tertiary care hospitals https://www.ijbcp.com/index.php/ijbcp/article/view/5581 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Materiovigilance (Mv) refers to the systematic monitoring and evaluation of medical devices in order to assess their performance and safety during all stages of their life. The purpose of Mv is to identify and avoid any potential hazards or issues linked with medical equipment. In brief, Mv plays an important role in ensuring the performance and safety of medical equipment. It consists of the systematic observation, the collection, and analysis of data on occurrences and adverse events related to medical equipment. The study was conducted to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding Mv among healthcare professionals in tertiary care hospitals.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Self-prepared and validated questionnaires were distributed among healthcare Professionals in India through online forms from December 2022 to July 2023, a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was used, with convenience sampling utilized. Responses from 220 subjects were analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The primary objective of this study was to assess the demographic details of the Healthcare Professionals as well as the distribution of knowledge, Attitude, Practice on Mv, in a list of 220 responses, 40% of them know about the Mv. Remaining 60% of them they don’t know about the Mv. Total 220 responses, 76.8% of the Healthcare professionals suggested to thought about the Mv, remaining 23.1% were disagreed. 75 out of 220 healthcare professionals acknowledged to seeing the reporting form and experiencing AE in their patients, while the remaining 145 denied it.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>This study determined the knowledge, attitude and practice of Mv among healthcare professionals in tertiary care hospitals. According to the current study, the majority of healthcare professionals were knowledgeable and supportive of Mv, however they are not as effective in practice.</p> Sindhu Selvam Rahul Prassath Ishwaryaa Jothi Babu Sneha Raja Narmatha Rajarathinam Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 13 3 358 363 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20240992 A study assessing the knowledge, attitude, and practice of materiovigilance among medical professionals in the states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh, India https://www.ijbcp.com/index.php/ijbcp/article/view/5583 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Medical devices are vital for healthcare diagnosis and treatment but pose inherent risks. Physicians and healthcare professionals play a crucial role in reporting adverse events associated with these devices. Despite this, there is a notable scarcity of literature addressing the knowledge, attitudes, and practices surrounding India's Materiovigilance (Mv) Program. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of doctors and postgraduate residents in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu regarding the Materiovigilance program of India (MvPI).</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>It was conducted as an observational, cross-sectional study, a structured self-administered Google Form survey was distributed among medical professionals and citizens of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. The survey, comprising 22 questions on knowledge, attitudes, and Mv practices, was disseminated via various social networking sites.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Out of 700 doctors and postgraduate residents surveyed, 496 responded, yielding a response rate of 70.8%. The majority (96.8%) acknowledged the potential for adverse events from medical devices, with 91.1% agreeing on healthcare professionals' responsibility to report such events. Despite experiencing medical device-related adverse events in practice (63.3% of respondents), only a small fraction (12.1%) reported them, although 93.5% expressed willingness to report.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The study underscores a knowledge gap among physicians and residents regarding MvPI in India, highlighting the necessity for educational interventions. To address this gap, MvPI coordinators should organize conferences and seminars aimed at enhancing awareness and reporting practices among healthcare professionals.</p> Saranraj K. Usha Kiran P. Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 13 3 364 370 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20240993 Drug utilization and prescribing pattern in the treatment of urolithiasis: a perspective on World Health Organization recommendations https://www.ijbcp.com/index.php/ijbcp/article/view/5587 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Drug utilization research (DUR) is essential in promoting rational use of medicine, aimed at understanding the patterns of prescription, administration, and utilization of medications. It provides valuable insights into the actual drug usage patterns for specific disease conditions. To evaluate the current utilization pattern of drugs in patients of urolithiasis in the Department of General Medicine and Surgery at Integral Institute of Medical Science and Research Hospital, Lucknow.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Following the approval of the institutional ethics committee, a prospective observational study was conducted at Integral Institute of Medical Science and Research Department of general medicine and surgery over a six-month period. Urolithiasis patients’ prescriptions were analyzed to study the prescribing patterns. Information about patient demographics, co-morbidities, and the number and types of medications prescribed were collected and analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of 102 patients studied, a female preponderance over male patients was observed. The co-morbidities that are encountered most commonly were hydronephrosis, cystitis, and renal cyst. There is averaged 7 medicines per prescription, 15.25% of medicines written by the generic name, 83.33% of patients receiving antibiotics, 54.70% of patients receiving injections, and 83% of drugs prescribed are mentioned in the essential medicine list. Analgesics, antibiotics, nutritional supplements, antiemetic, alkalizing agents, and antispasmodics were among the class of medicines given.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This study highlights the current use of medicines and drug utilization in urolithiasis management. The findings show important insights for healthcare professionals to enhance medication therapy, encourage cost-effective healthcare delivery and improve quality of patient in urolithiasis management.</p> Mudassir Sada Sania Khan M. Umar Khan M. Muazzam Khan Pankaj Kumar Usama Ahmad Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 13 3 371 377 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20240994 Antimicrobial utilization pattern in indoor patients of obstetrics and gynecology ward of a tertiary care hospital https://www.ijbcp.com/index.php/ijbcp/article/view/5590 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Rational prescribing of antimicrobials is fundamentally necessary to reduce incidence of antimicrobial resistance. To evaluate the rationality of antimicrobial prescribing practices in patients admitted to obstetrics and gynecology ward of a tertiary care hospital using ICMR guidelines and to check how many drugs were prescribed from NLEMI. </p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> It was a prospective observational study. Study included newly admitted patients in obstetrics and gynecology ward receiving antimicrobial therapy. Drugs prescribed to the patients during their hospital stay were noted from case sheets in case record form. WHO core and economic indicators were used to analyze prescribing patterns. Medguideindia.com was referred for prices of drugs.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Average number of drugs prescribed for a patient admitted in the obstetrics and gynecology ward were 3.22 and 4.31 respectively. Percentage of drugs prescribed by their generic name were 37.11% and 39.42% in obstetrics and gynecology ward respectively. 26.85% and 34.14% of patients received drugs through parenteral route in obstetrics and gynecology wards respectively. All antimicrobials were prescribed from NLEMI.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> WHO recommends prescribing all drugs by their generic names. Average duration of antimicrobial treatment was higher than recommended average duration suggested by ICMR. ICMR recommends use of 2<sup>nd</sup> generation cephalosporins but in the present study 3<sup>rd</sup> generation cephalosporins were used. For rational use of antimicrobials and to reduce their cost it is recommended to prescribe antimicrobials by their generic names and reduce treatment duration by referring to ICMR Guidelines and NLEMI.</p> Aparna Chincholkar Ankita Sawant Vaishali Korde Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 13 3 378 381 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20240995