Variation of hemodynamic response following induction and tracheal intubation: etomidate vs midazolam

Binod Pegu, Deba Gopal Pathak, Suneeta Dutta, Bublee Khakhlary


Background: Induction and endotracheal intubation are invariably associated with certain cardiovascular changes during anaesthesia practice and can lead to sudden swings of blood pressure, arrhythmias, MI and cardiovascular collapse especially in geriatric and haemodynamically unstable patients. Therefore it is desirable to use a safer agent with fewer adverse effects to minimise these complications. Present prospective randomized study is designed to compare the haemodynamic alterations and various adverse effects following induction with etomidate and midazolam.

Methods: Hundred ASA I and II patients of age group 18-60 years scheduled for elective surgical procedure under general anesthesia were randomly divided into two groups of 50 each receiving etomidate (0.3mg/kg) and midazolam (0.15mgk/kg) as an induction agent. Vital parameters before and after induction and thereafter at specified time interval following laryngoscopy and intubation were recorded for comparison. Adverse effect viz. pain on injection, apnea and myoclonic activity were also carefully watched.

Results: Demographic variables in both the groups were comparable. Patients in both the groups showed little change in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) from baseline value (p >0.05). Pain on injection and myoclonic activity were seen in etomidate group while delayed awakening was seen with Midazolam group.

Conclusions: This study concludes that both etomidate and midazolam provides haemodynamic stability but Midazolam can be preferred as an induction agent in view of fewer side effects.


Etomidate, Endotracheal intubation, Haemodynemic stability, Midazolam

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