Urinary extract profiles of illegal substances at psychiatry and dependency clinics: three years report


  • Pelin Tanyeri Department of Pharmacology, Sakarya University, Faculty of Medicine, Sakarya, Turkey
  • Ahmet Bulent Yazici Department of Psychiatry, Sakarya University, Training and Research Hospital, Sakarya, Turkey
  • Mehmet Emin Buyukokuroglu Department of Pharmacology, Sakarya University, Faculty of Medicine, Sakarya, Turkey
  • Esra Yazici Department of Psychiatry, Sakarya University, Faculty of Medicine, Sakarya, Turkey
  • Atila Erol Department of Psychiatry, Sakarya University, Faculty of Medicine, Sakarya, Turkey




Illegal, Probation, Substance, Urine drug screening


Background: Substance abuse is a serious problem all over the world. There are many studies report the illegal substance use profile but few studies present their toxicology laboratory analysis. This study reports a quantitative profile of (Urine Drug Screening)) for illegal substances in Sakarya-Turkey.

Methods: This study presents the urine analysis of all illegal substances which were made in the laboratory of Sakarya Training Research Hospital between March 2012 and February 2015. The results obtained from socio-demographic data and urine tests of patients were analyzed by examining their hospital record files. Urine drug screening was conducted with immunoassay quantitative analysis.

Results: People subjected to substance analysis (n=2948) ages vary between 12 and 76, their mean age was 28.30±9.46. 96.74% (n=2852) of them were males. Substance positivity was determined in 34.73% of all patients (n=1024/2948) and their ages varied between 14 and 70 and their mean age was 29.39±9.65. Distribution of the urine positivity of the substances contained: marijuana 79, 5% (n=814), amphetamine 30.17% (n=309), ecstasy 23.74% (n=199), benzodiazepine 9,1% (n=94), synthetic cannabinoid 4.9% (n=12/243); opioid 5.2% (n=54), cocaine 1.67% (n=14) and multiple substance 29.9% (n=308).

Conclusions: According to this study, marijuana is the most frequently used substance and multiple substance use is common. Synthetic cannabinoid seems to take place rapidly among the users. Updating the kits is important to reach the correct information in drug screening tests.


Republic Of Turkey Ministry Of Interior Turkish National Police Anti-Smuggling and Organized Crime Department, National Report to the EMCDDA 2013 by the Reitox National Focal Point: Turkey New Developments, trends, Selected Issues. Available from: http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index228535EN.html.

Kilpatrick B, Howlett M, Sedgwick P, Ghodse AH. Drug use, self report and urinalysis. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2000;58:111-116.

Lundy A, Gottheil E, McLellan AT, Weinstein SP, Sterling RC, Serota R. Underreporting of cocaine use at posttreatment follow-up and the measurement of treatment effectiveness. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 1997;185:459-62.

Nolan JL. Drug treatment courts and the disease paradigm. Substance use and misuse 2002;37:1723-50.

Olshaker JS, Browne B, Jerrard DA, Prendergast H, Stair TO. Medical clearance and screening of psychiatric patients in the emergency department. Academic Emergency Medicine. 1997;4:124-8.

Perrone J, De Roos F, Jayaraman S, Hollander JE. Drug screening versus history in detection of substance use in ED psychiatric patients. American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2001;19:49-51.

Manchikanti L, Malla Y, Wargo BW, Fellows B. Comparative evaluation of the accuracy of immunoassay with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) of urine drug testing (UDT) opioids and illicit drugs in chronic pain patients. Pain Physician. 2011;14:175-87.

Melanson SEF, Baskin L, Magnani B, Kwong TC, Dizon A, Wu AHB. Interpretation and utility of drug of abuse immunoassays lessons from laboratory drug testing surveys. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine. 2010;134:735-9.

Bıcak V, Grieves BE. Turkish Penal Code. Seckin Publishing, Ankara, Turkey; 2007.

Yenisey F. Turkish Penal Procedure Code. Beta Publishing, Istanbul. Turkey; 2009;231-232.

Porath-Waller AJ, Beasley E, Beirness DJ. A meta-analytic review of school-based prevention for cannabis use. Health education and behavior: the official publication of the Society for Public Health Education. 2010;37:709-23.

Lewin AH, Seltzman HH, Carroll FI, Mascarella SW, Reddy PA. Emergence and properties of spice and bath salts: a medicinal chemistry perspective. Life sciences. 2014;97:9-19.

Castaneto MS, Gorelick DA, Desrosiers NA, Hartman RL, Pirard S, Huestis MA. Synthetic cannabinoids: Epidemiology, pharmacodynamics, and clinical implications. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014;144C:12-41.

Gurdal F, Asirdizer M, Aker RG, Korkut S, Gocer Y, Kucukibrahimoglu EE, Ince CH. Review of detection frequency and type of synthetic cannabinoids in herbal compounds analyzed by Istanbul Narcotic Department of the Council of Forensic Medicine, Turkey. Journal of forensic and legal medicine. 2013;20:667-72.

SAMHSA. Results from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings.: NSDUH Series H-48, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 14-4863, Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA); 2014.

Henkel D. Unemployment and substance use: a review of the literature (1990-2010). Current drug abuse reviews; 2011;4:4-27.

Rosenbaum CD, Carreiro SP, Babu KM. Here today, gone tomorrow and back again? A review of herbal marijuana alternatives (K2, Spice), synthetic cathinones (bath salts), kratom, Salvia divinorum, methoxetamine, and piperazines. Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology. 2012;8:15-32.

Ogata J, Uchiyama N, Kikura-Hanajiri R, Goda Y. DNA sequence analyses of blended herbal products including synthetic cannabinoids as designer drugs. Forensic Science International. 2013;227:33-41.

Karadeniz H, Birincioğlu İ, Seçilmişoğlu B, Savaş H, Zazoğlu S. Evaluation of toxicological analysis results and treatment applications in cases registered for drug addiction at parole branch office of Trabzon. The Bulletin of Legal Medicine. 2009;14.

Bahçeci B, Helvacı Çelik F, Kandemir G, Güveli H, Polat S. Evaluation Of The Patients Applied By Probation Referring To A Training And Research Hospital In The Eastern Black Sea Region: A One-Year Retrospective Study. J For Med. 2014;28:1-9.

Altintoprak AE, Akgur SA, Kitapçıoğlu G, Yuncu Z, Coşkunol H. Retrospective Analysis of Probationers: Sociodemographic Characteristics, Individual and Familial History Addiction and Crime, and Treatment Outcomes Journal of Dependence. 2014;15:1-9.

Favretto D, Pascali JP, Tagliaro F. New challenges and innovation in forensic toxicology: focus on the New Psychoactive Substances. Journal of Chromatography A. 2013;1287:84-95.

Isıklı S, Irak M. Investigation of substance use and addiction profile in Turkey: Year of 2002, broad region research of substance use. Turkish Psychological Association. 2002;4:55-65.

Greenfield SF, Back SE, Lawson K, Brady KT. Substance Abuse in Women. Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 2010;33:339-55.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. The TEDS Report: Age of Substance Use Initiation among Treatment Admissions; 2014.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. European drug report: trends and developments. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities; 2013.

Zorlu N, Türk H, Manavgat Aİ, Karadaş B, Gülseren Ş. Retrospective studying of sociodemographic, clinical characteristics and extent of alcohol use disorder among patients applied by probation. 2011;12.

Kraus L, Augustin R, Frischer M, Kümmler P, Uhl A, Wiessing L. Estimating prevalence of problem drug use at national level in countries of the European Union and Norway. Addiction. 2003;98:471-85.

van Ours JC, Williams J. Why parents worry: initiation into cannabis use by youth and their educational attainment. Journal of health economics. 2009;28:132-42.

Bangert-Drowns RL. The effects of school-based substance abuse education--meta-analysis. Journal of drug education. 1988;18:243-64.

Artuc S, Doğan KH, Demirci S. Uyuşturucu maddelerde yeni trend. Sentetik kannabinoidler [New trend in narcotic drugs: synthetic cannabinoids] The Bulletin of Legal Medicine. 2014;19:198-203.

Bulut M, Savaş HA, Cansel N, Selek S, Kap Ö, Yumru M, Vırıt O. Sociodemografic characteristics of patients, applied to Substance Usage Disorders Unit of Gaziantep University. J Depend. 2006;7:65-70.




How to Cite

Tanyeri, P., Yazici, A. B., Buyukokuroglu, M. E., Yazici, E., & Erol, A. (2017). Urinary extract profiles of illegal substances at psychiatry and dependency clinics: three years report. International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 6(3), 495–502. https://doi.org/10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20170809



Original Research Articles