Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors: updated evidence on their efficacy and safety in patients with type-2 diabetes

Vipul Gupta, Girish Khurana


Management of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is challenging. The scope of existing therapies toward T2DM has transformed remarkably. These large assortments of therapies have produced evidence-based data. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT-2i) is the most recent class of oral anti-hyperglycemic agents. They are approved by Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. SGLT-2i has a unique mechanism of action and that lower glucose independent of insulin. They reduce renal tubular glucose reabsorption, thereby lowering blood glucose without stimulating the release of insulin. Additional advantages involve suitable effects on blood pressure and weight. According to guidelines of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/ the American College of Endocrinology 2016, SGLT-2i (in the form of canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin) is one of the acceptable alternatives to metformin as initial therapy towards T2DM. Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin reduce the cardiovascular risk in comparison to placebo as the part of standard care. This review article focuses on the clinical trials published over the past year and specifically the metabolic aspect of SGLT-2i and the adverse effects related to SGLT-2 inhibitors.



SGLT2, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, Oral glucose-lowering medicines

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