Effect of methonolic extract of Vitex negundo on haloperidol induced catalepsy in albino mice


  • Sandeep Kumar Kamlekar Department of Pharmacology, Geetanjali Medical College and Hospital, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
  • Sangita Gupta Department of Pharmacology, Geetanjali Medical College and Hospital, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India




Catalepsy, Haloperidol, Mice, Vitex negundo


Background: Plants are being used in traditional medicine since history of mankind. The knowledge of these medicinal plants has accrued in the course of many centuries leading to medicinal systems in India such as Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha. Objective: In the present study, we evaluated the anticataleptic efficacy of Vitex negundo, a polyherbal formulation in haloperidol induced catalepsy in mice.

Methods: Five groups (n=6) of male albino mice were used in the study. Catalepsy was induced by i.p. administration of haloperidol (1 mg/kg). The degree of catalepsy (cataleptic score) was measured as the time the animal maintained an imposed posture. We compared the anticataleptic efficacy of Vitex negundo (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) with standard received Pheniramine maleate 10 mg/kg, i.p.

Results: In vehicle treated animals, haloperidol (1 mg/kg. i.p.) produced the maximum catalepsy at 180 min (46.78±3.78 min). Standard treated as Pheniramine maleate 10 mg/kg, i.p. shows maximum at 120 min. 19.24±1.32. Test herb, i.p. Methanolic extract of Vitex negundo (50, 100, 200 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly potentiated haloperidol induced catalepsy at each time interval, in a dose dependent manner. At dose 50, 100 and 200mg/kg, extract of Vitex negundo (Linn.) roots showed maximum cataleptic score 12.34±0.78, 14.43±0.43 and 15.43±0.67 min, respectively at 120 minutes in haloperidol treated animals.

Conclusions: The present study indicates that the methanolic extract of Vitex negundo reduces haloperidol-induced catalepsy in mice.


Herrington TM, Cheng JJ, Eskandar EN. Mechanisms of deep brain stimulation. J Neurophysiol. 2016;155:19-38.

Gale JT, Amirnovin R, Williams ZM, Flaherty AW, Eskandar EN. From symphony to cacophony: Pathophysiology of the human basal ganglia in Parkinson disease. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2008;32:378-87.

Anderson VC, Burchiel KJ, Hogarth P, Favre J, Hammerstad JP. Palldidal vs subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson disease. Arch Neurol. 2005;62:554-60.

Olanow CW, Stern MB, Sethi K. The scientific and clinical basis for the treatment of Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2009;72(4): S1-136.

Casseday JH, Covey EA. Neuroethological theory of the operation of the inferior colliculus. Brain Behav Evol. 1996;47:311-36.

Faye-Lund H, Osen KK. Anatomy of the inferior colliculus in rat. Anat Embryol. 1985;171:1-20.

Moore JK. The human auditory brain stem: a comparative view. Heart Res. 1987;29:1-32.

Satake S, Yamada K, Melo LL, Barbosa Silva R. Effects of microinjections of apomorphine and haloperidol into the inferior colliculus on prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex in rat. Neurosci Lett. 2012;509:60-3.

Sivarajan VV, Balachandran I. Ayurvedic drugs and their plant sources. 1st edn. Oxford and IBH publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd: New Delhi, India; 1986:329-331.

Bhattacharjee SK. Handbook of Medicinal Plants. 1st edn. Pointer Publication, Jaipur, India; 1998:376-377.

Bano U, Jabeen A, Ahmed A, Siddiqui MA. Therapeutic uses of Vitex Nigundo. World J Pharma Res. 2015; 4(12):589-606.

Tandon VR, Gupta RK. An experimental evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of Vitex-negundo. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2005;49(2):199.

Sanberg PR, Pevsner J, Coyle JT. Parametric influences on catalepsy. Psychopharmacol. 1984;82:406-8.

Borse LB, Kottai A, Muthu A, Thangatripathi, Borse SL. Antidopaminergic Activity of Vitex negundo (Linn) plant. Asian J Chem. 2012;24(7):3171-3.

Khan M, Shah AJ, Gilani AH. Antidiarrheal and antispasmodic activities of Vitex negundo are mediated through calcium channel blockade. Bangladesh J Pharmacol. 2013;8:317-22.

Kokate CK. Practical Pharmacognosy. 4 [sup] th ed. New Delhi: Vallabh Prakashan; 1994: 104-111.

Evans WC. Trease and evans pharmacology. Harcourt Brace and Company. Asia. Pvt. Ltd. Singapore; 1997: 343-571.

Medeiros P, Viana MB, Barbosa-Silva RC, Tonelli LC, Melo-Thomas L. Glutamatergic neurotransmission in the inferior colliculus influences intrastriatal haloperidol-induced catalepsy. Behav Brain Res. 2014;268:8-13.

Melo LL, Santos P, Medeiros P, Mello RO, Ferrari EA, Brandão ML, et al. Glutamatergic neurotransmission mediated by NMDA receptors in the inferior colliculus can modulate haloperidol-induced catalepsy. Brain Res. 2010;1349:41-7.

Sanberg PR, Bunsey MD, Giordano M, Norman AB. The catalepsy test: its ups and downs. Behav Neurosci. 1988;102:748-59.

Melo LL, Brandão ML. Role of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors in the aversion induced by electrical stimulation of inferior colliculus. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1995;51:317-21.

Van OJ, Kapur S. Schizophrenia. Lancet. 2009;374:635-45.

Miyamoto S, Duncan GE, Marx CE, Lieberman JA. Treatments for schizophrenia: a critical review of pharmacology and mechanisms of action of antipsychotic drugs. Mol Psychiatr. 2005;10:79-104.

Pratt J, Winchester C, Dawson N, Morris B. Advancing schizophrenia drug discovery: optimizing rodent models to bridge the translational Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2012;11:560-79.

Kapur S, Mamo D. Half a century of antipsychotics and still a central role for dopamine D2 receptors. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatr. 2003;27:1081-90.




How to Cite

Kamlekar, S. K., & Gupta, S. (2020). Effect of methonolic extract of Vitex negundo on haloperidol induced catalepsy in albino mice. International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 9(4), 621–624. https://doi.org/10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20201188



Original Research Articles