DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20200192

Syzygium cumini (jamun) therapeutic potential: a comprehensive review on phytochemical constituents and emphasis on its pharmacological actions related to diabetic intervention

Meharban Asanaliyar, Pratibha Nadig

Abstract


Syzygium cumini or Eugenia Jambolana Lam is a traditional medicinal plant very native to the Indian and Asian sub-continent. It is commonly known as black plum or jamun. Various plants parts of the tree are known for ethno-medicinal uses, and in particular, the fruits of Jamun tree are well known for medicinal uses and preparation of health drinks. Studies have shown that the berries contain carbohydrates, minerals and the pharmacologically active phytochemicals. The active phytochemical includes flavonoids, terpenes, and anthocyanins. Ayurvedic and Indian Folk Medicine have already mentioned the use of jamun for diabetic treatment even before the advent of insulin. The bark, fruit pulp, seeds and the leaves are evaluated in the crude form as well as extracts in various diabetic models. Further, bioactive phytochemicals are extracted using in vitro assays, some of them such as vitalboside-A, mycominose are also characterized with spectroscopic analysis. This review article is intended to compile Syzygium cumini’s therapeutic potential with special emphasis on the phytochemical constituents and its pharmacological activities related to diabetic intervention through recent studies conducted in last one decade. It also addresses the clinical and toxicological studies.


Keywords


Syzygium cumini, Diabetes mellitus, Phytochemicals, Anthocyanins

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ayyanar M, Subash-Babu P. Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels: A review of its phytochemical constituents and traditional uses. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012;2(3):240-6.

Sanches JR, França LM, Chagas VT, Gaspar RS, dos Santos KA, Gonçalves LM, et al. Polyphenol-Rich extract of Syzygium cumini leaf dually improves peripheral insulin sensitivity and Pancreatic Islet function in monosodium l-glutamate-induced obese rats. Front Pharmacol. 2016;7:48.

Poongunran J, Perera HKI, Jayasinghe L, Fernando IT, Sivakanesan R, Araya H, Fujimoto Y. Bioassay-guided fractionation and identification of α-amylase inhibitors from Syzygium cumini leaves. Pharm Biol. 2017;55(1):206-11.

Tavares IM de C, Lago-Vanzela ES, Rebello LPG, Ramos AM, Gómez-Alonso S, García-Romero E, et al. Comprehensive study of the phenolic composition of the edible parts of jambolan fruit (Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels). Food Research International. 2016;82:1-13.

Thiyagarajan, G., Muthukumaran, P., Sarath Kumar, B., Muthusamy, V.S., Lakshmi, B.S. Selective inhibition of PTP1B by Vitalboside A from Syzygium cumini Enhances insulin sensitivity and Attenuates lipid accumulation via partial Agonism to PPARγ: In Vitro and In Silico Investigation. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2016; 88(2):302-12.

Kumar, A., Ilavarasan, R., Jayach, T., Deecaraman, M., Aravindan, P., Padmanabhan, N., Krishan, M.R.V. Anti-diabetic activity of syzygium cumini and its isolated compound against streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Med Plants Res. 2008;2(9):246-9.

Crandall JP, Knowler WC, Kahn SE, Marrero D, Florez JC, Bray GA, et al. The prevention of type 2 diabetes. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2008;4(7):382-93.

Bence KK, Delibegovic M, Xue B, Gorgun CZ, Hotamisligil GS, Neel BG, et al. Neuronal PTP1B regulates body weight, adiposity and leptin action. Nat Med. 2006;12(8):917-24.

Rondinone CM, Trevillyan JM, Clampit J, Gum RJ, Berg C, Kroeger P, et al. Protein tyrosine Phosphatase 1B reduction regulates Adiposity and expression of genes involved in Lipogenesis. Diabetes. 2002;51(8):2405-11.

Weidner C, de Groot JC, Prasad A, Freiwald A, Quedenau C, Kliem M, et al. Amorfrutins are potent antidiabetic dietary natural products Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109(9):7257-62.

Sharma AK, Bharti S, Kumar R, Krishnamurthy B, Bhatia J, Kumari S, et al. Syzygium cumini ameliorates insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction via modulation of PPAR, dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, and TNF-α in type 2 diabetic rats. J Pharmacol Sci. 2012;119(3):205-13.

Borges de Melo, E, da Silveira Gomes, A, Carvalho, I. α- and β-glucosidase inhibitors: Chemical structure and biological activity. Tetrahedron 2006;62(44):10277-302.

Alagesan, K, Thennarasu, P, Kumar, V, Sankarnarayanan, S, Balsamy, T. Identification of α-glucosidase inhibitors from Psidium guajava leaves and Syzygium cumini Linn. Seeds. Int J Pharma Sci Res. 2012;3(2):316-322

Poongunran J, Perera HKI, Jayasinghe L, Fernando IT, Sivakanesan R, Araya H, et al. Bioassay-guided fractionation and identification of α-amylase inhibitors from Syzygium cumini leaves. Pharm Biol. 2017;55(1):206-11.

Omar R, Li L, Yuan T, Seeram NP. α-Glucosidase inhibitory Hydrolyzable Tannins from Eugenia jambolana Seeds. J Nat Prod. 2012;75(8):1505-9.

Haskó G. Adenosine: An endogenous regulator of innate immunity. Trends Immunol. 2004;25(1):33-9.

Bopp A, Bona D, Bellé LP, Moresco RN, Moretto MB. Syzygium cumini inhibits adenosine deaminase activity and reduces glucose levels in hyperglycemic patients. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2009;23(4):501-7.

Bitencourt PER, Bona KSD, Cargnelutti LO, Bonfanti G, Pigatto A, Boligon A, et al. Syzygium cumini seed extract ameliorates adenosine deaminase activity and biochemical parameters but does not alter insulin sensitivity and pancreas architecture in a short-term model of diabetes. J Complement Integr Med. 2015;12(3):187-93.

De Bona KS, Bonfanti G, Bitencourt PER, Cargnelutti LO, da Silva PS, da Silva TP, et al. Syzygium cumini is more effective in preventing the increase of erythrocytic ADA activity than phenolic compounds under hyperglycemic conditions in vitro. J Physiol Biochem. 2014;70(2):321-30.

Alagesan K, Raghupathi K, Sankarnarayanan S. Amylase inhibitors: Potential source of anti-diabetic drug discovery from medicinal plants. Int J Pharm Life Sci. 2012;3(2):1407-12

Bardy G, Virsolvy A, Quignard JF, Ravier MA, Bertrand G, Dalle S, et al. Quercetin induces insulin secretion by direct activation of L type calcium channels in pancreatic beta cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2013;169(5):1102-13.

Jana K, Bera TK, Ghosh D. Antidiabetic effects of Eugenia jambolana in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rat. Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine. 2015;7:116-24.

Saifi A, Chauhan R, Dwivedi J. Assessment of the antidiabetic activity of Syzygium cumini (Linn.) Skeels in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Res. J. Pharmacol Pharmacodynam. 2016;8(3):91-6.

Nahid S, Mazumder K, Rahman Z, Islam S, Rashid MH, Kerr PG. Cardio- and hepato-protective potential of methanolic extract of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels seeds: A diabetic rat model study. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2017;7(2):126-33.

Baldissera G, Sperotto ND, Rosa HT, Henn JG, Peres VF, Moura DJ, et al. Effects of crude hydroalcoholic extract of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels leaves and continuous aerobic training in rats with diabetes induced by a high-fat diet and low doses of streptozotocin. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;194:1012-21.

Tripathi AK, Kohli S. Pharmacognostical standardization and antidiabetic activity of Syzygium cumini (Linn.) barks (Myrtraceae) on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Complement Integr Med. 2014;11(2):71-81.

Deb, L, Bhattacharjee, C, Shetty, R.S, Dutta, A. Evaluation of anti-diabetic potential of the syzygium cuminii (linn) skeels by reverse pharmacological approaches. Bulletin Pharm Res. 2013;3(3):135-45.

Yadav D, Chaudhary AA, Garg V, Anwar MF, Rahman MM, Jamil SS, et al. In vitro toxicity and antidiabetic activity of a newly developed polyherbal formulation (MAC-ST/001) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Protoplasma. 2013;250(3):741-9.

Yele SU, Veeranjaneyulu A. Toxicological assessments of aqueous extract of Eugenia Jambolana stem bark. Pharm Biol. 2010;48(8):849-54.

Silva S do N, Abreu IC, Silva GFC, Ribeiro RM, Lopes A de S, Cartágenes M do S de S, et al. The toxicity evaluation of Syzygium cumini leaves in rodents. Rev. bras. Farmacogn. 2012;22(1):102-8.

Bitencourt PER, Ferreira LM, Cargnelutti LO, Denardi L, Boligon A, Fleck M, et al. A new biodegradable polymeric nanoparticle formulation containing Syzygium cumini: Phytochemical profile, antioxidant and antifungal activity and in vivo toxicity. Industrial Crops Products. 2016;83:400-7.

Teixeira CC, Fuchs FD, Weinert LS, Esteves J. The efficacy of folk medicines in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus: Results of a randomized controlled trial of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2006;31(1):1-5.

Baliga MS, Fernandes S, Thilakchand KR, D’souza P, Rao S. Scientific validation of the Antidiabetic effects of Syzygium jambolanum DC (black plum), a traditional medicinal plant of India. J Altern Complement Med. 2013;19(3):191-7.

Sidana S, Singh V, Meena B, Beniwal S, Chandra S, Singh, K, et al. Effect of Syzygium cumini (jamun) seed powder on dyslipidemia: A double blind randomized control trial. Int J Res Med Sci. 2016;4(7):2603-10.