Simulation based learning methodology in pharmacology: knowledge and perception among second year medical under-graduate students


  • Nicole Pereira Department of Pharmacology, Fr Muller Medical College, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
  • Padmaja Udaykumar Department of Pharmacology, Fr Muller Medical College, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
  • Lulu Sherif Academic In-charge, Simulation and Skills centre, Fr Muller Medical College, Mangalore, Karnataka, India



Decision making, Human patient simulator, Pharmacology, Simulation-based learning, Skill development, Teamwork


Background: Simulation-based learning (SBL) enhances problem-solving, improves skills in health care professionals. Authors assessed its use in teaching and learning pharmacology among medical undergraduates exposed to METIman, human patient simulator.

Methods: Medical undergraduate students exposed to SBL for over a year (8 clinical pharmacology related scenarios) were asked to fill a validated questionnaire at the end of the academic year.

Results: Of 145 students who underwent SBL, the data of 84 were analysed. The overall satisfaction score with SBL was highly significant in 79 (94%) with a score of 26-35. Participants opined that it increases the depth of experience (91.6%), provides a no risk learning and immediate feedback opportunity (93.4%), a good opportunity to come across rare scenarios (86.2%), enhances decision making, communication, teamwork and skill development (92%); opportunity of repeated learning and enhanced patient safety at hospitals (89.28%), reduces the dependency on patients (72.8%), good opportunity for crisis training (88.0%) were other factors favouring the use of SBL. Preference for an increase in the number of classes allotted to simulation (27.4%) and reducing the duration of class (9.6%) were the major suggestions. It is an excellent method to teach and make it interesting to learn pharmacology (80.0%)

Total score varied between 23-35 with a mean±SD of 35±30.64. None had a score of 7-15.

Conclusions: SBL is an effective teaching and learning methodology with adequate participant satisfaction. It can be of immense utility as a learning tool with better outcome in learning, retention and recall.


Morgan PJ, Cleave-Hogg D, Desousa S. Applying theory to practice in undergraduate education using high fidelity simulation. Medical Teacher. 2006 Jan 1;28(1):e10-5.

Gaba D. Human work environment and simulators. In: Miller RD, editor. In Anaesthesia. 5th Edition. Churchill Livingstone:1999:18-26.

Ennen CS, Satin AJ. Training and assessment in obstetrics: the role of simulation. Best Pract Res Clin Obstetr Gynaecol. 2010 Dec 1;24(6):747-58.

Gill M, Andersen E, Hilsmann N. Best practices for teaching pharmacology to undergraduate nursing students: A systematic review of the literature. Nurse Educ Today. 2018;74:15-24.

Hughes IE. Computer-based learning–an aid to successful teaching of pharmacology?. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch Pharmacol. 2002 Jul 1;366(1):77-82.

Thompson TL, Bonnel WB. Integration of high-fidelity patient simulation in an undergraduate pharmacology course. J Nur Educ. 2008 Nov 1;47(11):518-21.

Seropian M, Dillman D, Lasater K, Gavilanes J. Mannequin-based simulation to reinforce pharmacology concepts. Simulation Healthcare. 2007 Dec 1;2(4):218-23.

Cooke C, Gormley GJ, Haughey S, Barry J. Tracing the prescription journey: a qualitative evaluation of an interprofessional simulation-based learning activity. Advances Simulation. 2017 Dec;2(1):14.

Arcoraci V, Squadrito F, Altavilla D, Bitto A, Minutoli L, Penna O, et al. Medical simulation in pharmacology learning and retention: A comparison study with traditional teaching in undergraduate medical students. Pharmacol Res Perspectives. 2019 Feb;7(1):e00449.

Ayed A, Khalaf I. The outcomes of integrating high fidelity simulation in nursing education: an integrative review. Open J Nur. 2018;292-302.

Omer T. Nursing Students' Perceptions of Satisfaction and Self-Confidence with Clinical Simulation Experience. J Educ Pract. 2016;7(5):131-8.

Atray M, Agrawal A, Atray D. Comparative effectiveness of simulation based teaching versus conventional teaching for undergraduate students of second professional M.B.B.S in experimental pharmacology. Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2017;8:1492-97.

Kasturi R, Heimburger G, Nelson E, Phero J, Millard RW. Does human simulator-aided learning improve long-term retention of autonomic pharmacology concepts and facts by year II medical students. Med Sci Educ. 2009;19(3):89-94.

Founds SA, Zewe G, Scheuer LA. Development of high-fidelity simulated clinical experiences for baccalaureate nursing students. J Professional Nur. 2011 Jan 1;27(1):5-9.

Baptista RC, Martins JC, Pereira MF, Mazzo A. Students' satisfaction with simulated clinical experiences: validation of an assessment scale. Latin-Am J Enfermagem. 2014 Oct; 22 (5): 709-15.

Chakravarthy B, ter Haar E, Bhat SS, McCoy CE, Denmark TK, Lotfipour S. Simulation in medical school education: review for emergency medicine. Western J Emergency Med. 2011 Nov;12(4):461.

Weller JM, Nestel D, Marshall SD, Brooks PM. Simulation in clinical teaching and learning. Med J Aust. 2012;196(9):45-8.

Datta R, Upadhyay KK, Jaideep CN. Simulation and its role in medical education. Med J Armed Forces India. 2012 Apr;68(2):167-72.

Krishnan DG, Keloth AV, Shaikh U. Pros and cons of simulation in medical education: a review. Int J Med Health Res. 2017;3(6):84-7.




How to Cite

Pereira, N., Udaykumar, P., & Sherif, L. (2019). Simulation based learning methodology in pharmacology: knowledge and perception among second year medical under-graduate students. International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 8(3), 420–424.



Original Research Articles