DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20174355

Pharmacoeconomic evaluation in cost of illness in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in a tertiary care hospital

Tushar R. Bagle, Vijay A. Vare, Alankar Nimgade, Rohankumar C. Hire, Yogesh Sharma, Prasita Kshirsagar

Abstract


Background: India is expected to bear the burden of world’s greatest increase of diabetes population. This burden needs to be considered in terms of costs.

Methods: Cross-sectional study was done in type 2 diabetes mellitus 100 patients that attended Medicine OPD. Prior to enrollment Institutional Ethics Committee permission was taken. Written Informed consent was taken. Demographic information related to Education, Occupation and Income was taken down. Also Information related to diagnostic tests and medications were documented. Inclusion criterion were 18-70 years of either gender diagnosed by Physicians in OPD as type 2 diabetes, willing to participate and have followed in OPD for at least one year. The Exclusion criterion was Critically ill or unconscious patients and Pregnant women. Direct and indirect costs were calculated.

Results: The average age was 56.31±10.50 years. The average fasting blood glucose was 120.65±22.70mg/dl. The average cost per month for investigations was 159.74±128.06. Annual visit to OPD was 13.06±7.35. Time loss per visit was 5.62±1.29 hours and of accompanying person was 6.55±3.87 hours. There were 2 from Lower and 63 from Upper Lower socioeconomic class. There were 41 patients having diabetic complications. The indirect cost was around 5838.51 and direct cost was around 19925. Total cost per annum per patient was around 32361.27 INR.

Conclusions: There is need for strategies to reduce the cost burden. There is also needed to design financial systems for diabetes related nationwide health programs.


Keywords


Direct costs, Glibenclamide, Indirect costs, Metformin, Pioglitazone, Voglibose

Full Text:

PDF

References


Assefa B, Wondimu A, Abrha S, Dinda SC, Demeke B, Samuel NG. Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of Antidiabetic treatment at Ayder Refrral Hospital, Mekelle, Ethiopia. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res. 2014;25(1):47-52.

International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes, 7th Ed. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation, 2015. http://www.diabetesatlas.org. Available at: https://www.idf.org/sites/default/files/EN_6E_Atlas_Full_0.pdf Accessed on 19 Jan 2016.

Kaveeshwar SA, Cornwall J. The current state of diabetes mellitus in India. AMJ. 2014;7(1):45-8.

Boyko EJ, Jacobson IJ, Smith B, Ryan MAK, Hooper TI. Gackstetter GD, et al. Risk of diabetes in US military service members in relation to combat deployment and mental health. Diabetes Care. 2010;33:1771-7.

Dray SR, Gary WT, Brancati FL. Educational disparities in mortality among adults with diabetes in the U.S. Diabetes care. 2010;33:1200-5.

Barcelo A, Aedo C, Rajpathak S, Robles S. The cost of diabetes in Latin America and the Caribbean. Bull World Health Organ. 2003;81:19-27.

Sobel BE, Schneider DJ. Cardiovascular complications in diabetes mellitus. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2005;5:143-8.

Javanbakht M, Baradaran HR, Mashayekhi A, Kaghdoost AA, Khamesh ME, Kharazmi E. Cost of Illness Analysis of type 2 diabetes Mellitus in Iran. Plos One. 2011;6(10):e26864:1-7.

Park K. The Community: Socioeconomic scale. In: Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine. 23rd Ed; India, Banarasidas Bhanot; 2015:689-690.

American Diabetes Association. Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes. (Position statement). Diabetes Care. 2014;37(1):14-80.

Köster I, Ferber LV, Ihle P, Schubert I, Hauner H. The cost burden of diabetes mellitus: the evidence from Germany- the CoDiM Study. Diabetologia. 2006;49:1498-504.

Barcelo A, Aedo C, Rajpathak S, Robles S. The cost of diabetes in Latin America and the Caribbean. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2003;81(1):19-27.

Aravind SR, Rao AC, Andrade C, Shetty DP, Geethamani V, Divaker H, et al. Current Index of Medical Specialties. UBM Medica India. Update 2. 2017:382-400

Aravind SR, Rao AC, Andrade C, Shetty DP, Geethamani V, Divaker H, Sharma JB et al. Indian Drug Review, Drug Triple Compedium. UBM Medica India. 2017;23(3):248-57.

Jadhav NB, Bhosale MS, Adhav CV. Cost Analysis Study of Oral Antidiabetic Drugs Available In Indian Market. Int J Med Res Health Sci. 2013;2(1):63-9.

Shah JV, Patni KN, Deshpande S. Pharmacoeconomic Evaluation, Cost Minimization Analysis of Anti-Diabetic Therapy in Gujarat. International Journal of Medical Research & Health Sciences. 2016;5(3):34-43.

Prajapati A, Kothari N, Ganguly B. Economic burden of diabetes mellitus in western India - a hospital based study. Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol. 2016;5:2572-80.

Chidambaram D, Ajith AA, Sivagnanam TR. Cost- of- Illness Analysis of Type 2 Diabetic Patients in a Multispeciality Hospital at Coimbatore. Indian Journal of Pharmacy Practice. 2013;6(4):39-44.

Abdelaziz MS, Shobha RH, Ravindranath S, Ramjan S, Mohamed K, Anas AS. Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of oral-hypoglycemic agents at hospital in Bangalore. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. 2015;10(5):46-50.

Davari M, Boroumand Z, Amini M, Aslani A, Hosseini M. The direct medical costs of outpatient cares of Type 2 diabetes in Iran: A retrospective study. Int J Prev Med. 2016;7:72.

Sortso C, Green A, Jensen PB, Emneus M. Research: Health Economics Societal costs of diabetes mellitus in Denmark. Diabetic Medicine. 2016;33:877-85.

Suleiman IA, Fadeke OF, Okubanjo OO. Pharmacoeconomic Evaluation of Anti-Diabetic Therapy in A Nigerian Tertiary Health Institution. Annals of African Medicine. 2006;5(3):132-7.

Chincholkar A, Pentewar G. Cost variation analysis of oral anti-diabetic agents available in drug store of the tertiary care hospital and in Indian market. Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol. 2017;6:1794-8.

Hussain S. Cost variation analysis of Oral Hypoglycaemic agents available in Indian market: An Economic Perspective. International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research (IJPSR). 2015;6(5):913-8.

Selva P, Krishnan V. A study on cost analysis of various oral hypoglycemic Agents available in India. Int J Pharm Bio Sci. 2017;8(1):(B)13-7.

Kaveeshwar SA, Cornwall J. The current state of diabetes mellitus in India. Australasian Medical Journal. 2014;7(1):45-8.

Yesudian CAK, Grepstad M, Visintin E, Ferrario A. The economic burden of diabetes in India: a review of the literature. Globalization and Health. 2014;10(80):1-18.

Solli O, Jenssen T, Kristiansen IS. Diabetes: cost of illness in Norway. BMC. Endocrine Disorders. 2010;10:15.

Javanbakht M, Baradaran HR, Mashayekhi A, Haghdoost AA, Khamseh ME, Kharazmi E, et al. Cost-of-Illness Analysis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Iran. Plos One. 2011;6(10):1-7.