Investigation of centrally and peripherally acting analgesic and anti inflammatory activity of biological immune response modulator (an Amazonian plant extract) in animal models of pain and inflammation

Mital Ravalji, Edwin Cevallos-Arellano, Suresh Balakrishnan


Background: Biological immune response modulator (BIRM) - An aqueous extract of dried roots of the species Dulcamara (family Solanaceae) grown in Ecuador, considered as a natural remedy for various disease is promoted as a natural herbal medicine. Our aim of the study was to assess the central and peripheral analgesic and anti-inflammatory property of BIRM and to study its mechanism of action.

Methods: Peripheral analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using acetic acid induced writhing test and carrageenan paw edema test in male Swiss Albino mice (n=8 per group). Formalin test was taken up to evaluate BIRM’s centrally, as well as peripheral antinociceptive action.

Results: We observed through our studies that BIRM when administered repeatedly for 7 days (4 ml/kg, p.o.) was able to exert its anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity through central and peripheral mechanism. BIRM was able to significantly inhibit both acetic acid induced writhes and carrageenan-induced paw edema indicating it’s possible peripheral analgesic and anti-inflammatory action. BIRM was also able to inhibit both neurogenic and inflammatory pain in the formalin test indicating its action through central and peripheral nervous system.

Conclusion: Our study results show that BIRM has the potential anti-inflammatory property and is able to exert its anti-nociceptive effect through both central and peripheral mechanisms.


Anti-inflammatory, Anti-nociceptive, Central analgesic, Peripheral analgesic, Biological immune response modulator

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