Evaluation of anti-parkinsonian activity of Elaeocarpus ganitrus on haloperidol induced Parkinson’s disease in mice

Harish G. Bagewadi, A. K. Afzal Khan


Background: Elaeocarpus ganitrus (Family: Elaeocarpaceae), has been used for the treatment of depression, convulsions and asthma. The existing literature is lacking in studies showing anti-parkinson effect of E. ganitrus. There is increased concern about the side-effects of conventional medicine in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Hence E. ganitrus having anti-oxidative property may be a safer alternative.

Methods: To evaluate the anti-parkinson effect of E. ganitrus, rota rod and catalepsy bar tests were used. Assessment of oxidative stress was done by measuring the malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in the striatal region of the brain. One-way ANOVA was used to detect statistical significance, followed by post-hoc Tukey test.

Results: E. ganitrus (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) pretreated groups significantly increased the retention time in rota rod test (p<0.001) and significantly decreased the latency period in catalepsy bar test (p<0.001), when compared with haloperidol treated group alone. E. ganitrus (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) pretreated groups showed significant anti-oxidative effect by causing a decrease in brain MDA levels (p<0.001) and a significant increase in GSH levels (p<0.001).

Conclusions: Oxidative stress plays a vital role in the pathophysiology of PD. The results of this study conclusively show that E. ganitrus has anti-oxidant activity and neuroprotective activity in haloperidol experimental model of PD.


Elaeocarpus ganitrus, Anti-oxidant, Haloperidol, Malondialdehyde, Glutathione

Full Text:



Ates DA, Erdogrul OT. Antimicrobial activities of various medicinal and commercial plant extracts. Turk J Biol. 2003;27(2003):157-62.

Singh RK, Acharya SB, Bhattacharya SK. Pharmacological activity of Elaeocarpus sphaericus. Phytother Res. 2000;14(1):36-9.

Singh RK, Bhattacharya SK, Acharya SB. Studies on extracts of Elaeocarpus sphaericus fruits on in vitro rat mast cells. Phytomedicine. 2000;7(3):205-7.

Katavic PL, Venables DA, Rali T, Carroll AR. Indolizidine alkaloids with delta-opioid receptor binding affinity from the leaves of Elaeocarpus fuscoides. J Nat Prod. 2007;70(5):872-5.

Bhattacharya SK, Debnath PK, Pandey VB, Sanyal AK. Pharmacological investigations on Elaeocarpus ganitrus. Planta Med. 1975;28(2):174-7.

Agid Y, Ruberg M, Javoy-Agid F, Hirsch E, Raisman-Vozari R, Vyas S, et al. Are dopaminergic neurons selectively vulnerable to Parkinson’s disease? Adv Neurol. 1993;60:148-64.

Prasad KN, Cole WC, Kumar B. Multiple antioxidants in the prevention and treatment of Parkinson’s disease. J Am Coll Nutr. 1999;18(5):413-23.

Dunham NW, Miya TS. A note on a simple apparatus for detecting neurological deficit in rats and mice. J Am Pharm Assoc Am Pharm Assoc (Baltim). 1957;46(3):208-9.

Hoffman DC, Donovan H. Catalepsy as a rodent model for detecting antipsychotic drugs with extrapyramidal side effect liability. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1995;120(2):128-33.

Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K. Assay for lipid peroxide in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem. 1979;95(2):351-8.

Ellman GL. Tissue sulfhydryl groups. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1959;82(1):70-7.

Jenner P. Preclinical evidence for neuroprotection with monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors in Parkinson’s disease. Neurology. 2004;63(7 Suppl 2):S13-22.

Yuan H, Zheng JC, Liu P, Zhang SF, Xu JY, Bai LM. Pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease: oxidative stress, environmental impact factors and inflammatory processes. Neurosci Bull. 2007;23(2):125-30.

Slivka A, Cohen G. Hydroxyl radical attack on dopamine. J Biol Chem. 1985;260(29):15466-72.

Polydoro M, Schröder N, Lima MN, Caldana F, Laranja DC, Bromberg E, et al. Haloperidol- and clozapine-induced oxidative stress in the rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2004;78(4):751-6.

Nair V, Arjuman A, Gopalakrishna HN, Nandini M. Effect of Withania somnifera root extract on haloperidol-induced catalepsy in albino mice. Phytother Res. 2008;22(2):243-6.

Teismann P, Vila M, Choi DK, Tieu K, Wu DC, Jackson-Lewis V, et al. COX-2 and neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;991:272-7.

Aubin N, Curet O, Deffois A, Carter C. Aspirin and salicylate protect against MPTP-induced dopamine depletion in mice. J Neurochem. 1998;71(4):1635-42.

Singh RK, Pandey BL. Anti-inflamatory activity of Elaeocarpus sphaericus fruit extract in rats. J Med Arom Plant Sci. 1999;21:1030-2.

Singh B, Chopra A, Ishar MP, Sharma A, Raj T. Pharmacognostic and antifungal investigations of Elaeocarpus ganitrus (Rudrakasha). Indian J Pharm Sci. 2010;72(2):261-5.

Lal C. Tabulated phytochemical reports. Phytochemistry. 1975;14:2727-8.

Johns SR, Lamberton JA, Suares H, Sioumis AA, Willing RI. The alkaloids of Elaeocarpus sphaericus. Aust J Chem. 1971;24:1679-94.

Ray AB, Chand L, Pandey VB. Rudrakine, a new alkaloid from Elaeocarpus ganitrus. Phytochemistry. 1979;18(4):700-1.

Chand L, Dasgupta S, Chattopadhyay SK, Ray AB. Chemical investigation of some Elaeocarpus species. Planta Med. 1977;32(2):197-9.

Reddy MVV, Singhal M. Evaluation of anti-parkinsonian activity of seed extract of Nelumbo nucifera. Int J Pharm Bio Sci. 2014;5(2):469-85.

Sathish Kumar T, Shanmugam S, Palvannan T, Bharathi Kumar VM. Evaluation of antioxidant properties of Elaeocarpus ganitrus roxb. Iran J Pharm Res. 2008;7:211-5.