A comparison of toxicity profile of gemcitabine monotherapy versus etoposide/cisplatin in the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer

Ved Prakash, Arpita Singh, Surya Kant, Ajay K. Verma, Prachi Saxena, Ankit Bhatia

Abstract


Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths globally in which about 40% patients reporting in advanced stage disease. Both platinum and non platinumcombinations have been shown to be equally efficacious as initial first-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), however because of the toxicity of cisplatin, combination treatment can only be administered to a minority of patients in good general health. Gemcitabine could be combined with one of the other new agents to create novel non-platinum-doublet combinations with efficacy and/or toxicity profile superior to that of standard platinum based combinations. Hence, this study was conducted to compare the toxicity profiles of gemcitabine monotherapy and the cisplatin/etoposide combination therapy.

Methods: This was a randomized prospective study, which included 96 patients selected on the basis of histologically or cytologically confirmed Stage III B or IV of NSCLC. Study was divided into two arms-Arm A received gemcitabine monotherapy in a dose of 1000 mg/m2 on day 1 and 5 of the cycle andrepeated after every 3 weeks while Arm B received cisplatin (25 mg/m2 on day 1, 2 and 3) + etoposide (100 mg/m2). Patient were evaluated for adverse events by following World Health Organization grading of toxicity.

Results: Out of the 96 patients enrolled in the study, 74 (77.0%) patients were eligible and were analyzed. Of these, 36 (37.5%) patients belonged to Arm A and 38 (39.5%) to Arm B. Transient vomiting (45.8% vs. 37.5%), leukopenia (33.3% vs. 8.3%) were seen more in Arm A, while thrombocytopenia (33.3% vs. 12.5%), patchy hair loss (68.4% vs. 16.6%) was seen more in Arm B. Nephrotoxicity was seen almost similarly in both the groups.

Conclusions: Single-agent gemcitabine appears to have a safer toxicity profile than the combination cisplatin-etoposide in the first-line chemotherapy of advanced NSCLC. With less toxic anticancer drugs like gemcitabine, the physician now has greater choice in choosing treatment, which can have better effect on the patients concerned.


Keywords


Non-small cell lung cancer, Chemotherapy, Toxicity

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References


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