A study of prescription pattern in the drug therapy of ear, nose, and throat infections at a tertiary care hospital in Mangalore

G. M. Nitasha Bhat, Rajendra Holla, Shrinath D. Kamath P.


Background: Diseases of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) constitute among the most common causes of hospital visits worldwide and account for most of the antibiotics prescribed and used. They are responsible for significant school and work absenteeism and have generated 94.6 disability-adjusted life years lost worldwide. Due to the high incidence of these diseases and the different varieties of drugs in use, it becomes imperative for us to know the present prescribing patterns, so that appropriate adjustments can be made for the benefit of patients.

Methods: Over a period of 1-year, the outpatient department (OPD) records of 608 patients with ENT infections, reporting to the ENT OPD of Justice K S Hegde Charitable Hospital, Deralakatte, Mangalore, were scrutinized and the data collected in a specially designed proforma. Descriptive analysis of the data was done.

Results: Of the total 608 prescriptions analyzed, 309 (50.8%) belonged to male patients and 299 (49.2%) belonged to female patients. Highest numbers of patients were in the age group of 16-25 years (29.44%). The most common diseases reported were chronic suppurative otitis media (19.24%), followed by otitis externa (13.49%) and furunculosis (9.87%). Average number of drugs per prescription was found to be 3.0. Oral antibiotics were prescribed to 540 patients (88.81%). Most common antibiotics prescribed were amoxicillin-clavulanate (53%), levofloxacin (17%), and cefixime (14%). Antihistamines were prescribed in 52.47% prescriptions, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were prescribed to 298 patients (49.01%).

Conclusion: This study shows that the diseases were treated rationally in accordance with the standard guidelines of therapy.


Antibiotic, Prescription pattern, ENT

Full Text:



Ain MR, Shahzad N, Aqil M, Alam MS, Khanam R. Drug utilization pattern of antibacterials used in ear, nose and throat outpatient and inpatient departments of a university hospital at New Delhi, India. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2010;2(1):8-12.

Linder JA, Singer DE, Stafford RS. Association between antibiotic prescribing and visit duration in adults with upper respiratory tract infections. Clin Ther. 2003;25(9):2419-30.

Coco AS, Horst MA, Gambler AS. Trends in broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing for children with acute otitis media in the United States, 1998-2004. BMC Pediatr. 2009;9:41.

Desalegn AA. Assessment of drug use pattern using WHO prescribing indicators at Hawassa University Teaching and Referral Hospital, south Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. BMC Health Serv Res. 2013;13:170.

Austin DJ, Kristinsson KG, Anderson RM. The relationship between the volume of antimicrobial consumption in human communities and the frequency of resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96(3):1152-6.

Khan FA, Nizamuddin S. Drug utilization patterns of antimicrobial agents in the outpatient department of ENT in a tertiary care teaching hospital of North India. JAPHR. 2011;1(2):22-30.

Potharaju HR, Kabra SG. Prescription audit of outpatient attendees of secondary level government hospitals in Maharashtra. Indian J Pharmacol. 2011;43(2):150-6.

Ong DS, Kuyvenhoven MM, van Dijk L, Verheij TJ. Antibiotics for respiratory, ear and urinary tract disorders and consistency among GPs. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008;62(3):587-92.

Uijen JH, Bindels PJ, Schellevis FG, van der Wouden JC. ENT problems in Dutch children: trends in incidence rates, antibiotic prescribing and referrals 2002-2008. Scand J Prim Health Care. 2011;29(2):75-9.

Quach C, Collet JP, LeLorier J. Acute otitis media in children: a retrospective analysis of physician prescribing patterns. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2004;57(4):500-5.

Akkerman AE, Kuyvenhoven MM, van der Wouden JC, Verheij TJ. Analysis of under- and overprescribing of antibiotics in acute otitis media in general practice. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2005;56(3):569-74.

Berman S, Byrns PJ, Bondy J, Smith PJ, Lezotte D. Otitis media-related antibiotic prescribing patterns, outcomes, and expenditures in a pediatric medicaid population. Pediatrics. 1997;100(4):585-92.