DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20151382

Empagliflozin and metformin combination therapy in Type 2 diabetes mellitus

R. Jeyalalitha

Abstract


Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a spectrum of metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia either due to an absolute or a relative insulin deficiency. The prevalence of diabetes varies between various countries and ethnic groups and of late, it has reached epidemic proportions in both the developed as well as in the developing countries. There is an intense need for new and effective therapies for Type 2 DM (T2DM) with improved safety and tolerability profiles to reduce the outcome of the acute and chronic complications of this condition. Empagliflozin is a new class of selective sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor approved for the treatment of T2DM in 2014. It has a novel and a unique mechanism of action in that it inhibits the reabsorption of glucose in the kidneys, promotes excessive glucose excretion through a non-insulin dependent mechanism and induces glycosuria. Metformin is the only biguanide which is currently the widely accepted first-line drug for T2DM. It is effective as monotherapy and as combination therapy and has proven beneficial effects on microvascular and macrovascular complications of DM. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration has approved the fixed dose combination of empagliflozin with metformin hydrochloride during August 2015. The combination of empagliflozin/metformin hydrochloride can be used as an adjunctive therapy to diet and exercise in patients those who are not adequately controlled with monotherapy of either empagliflozin or metformin. This drug update focuses on the insulin-independent unique mechanism of action of empagliflozin and its beneficial effects alone and in combination with metformin in patients with T2DM.


Keywords


Type 2 diabetes mellitus, Empagliflozin, Sodium glucose co-transporter 2, Metformin, Activated protein kinase, Fixed dose combination, Food and Drug Administration approved

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