Phytochemical screening, nutritional profile and anti-diabetic effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius in streptozotocin induce diabetic mice

Debendra Nath Roy, Nowrin Ferdiousi, Tania Khatun, Md. Ripon Ali Moral


Background: Herbal plants for their different medicinal values and formulation has been found to be effective for the treatment of various diseases since ancient period and potency of these plants are largely due to the presence of phytochemicals contained in it. Cnidoscolus aconitifolius is a perennial shrub of the family: euphorbiaceae commonly found in the tropics. This study is aimed at investigating the phytocomponents and hypoglycemic effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius in streptozotocin induced-diabetic mice.

Methods: Thirty (30) mice with average weight of 23g were randomly assigned into five groups of 6 each animal each. Group 1: served as negative control (Non-diabetic) and received normal mice chow and water; Group 2: Served as positive control group and received 10 mg/kg body weight (bw) of glibenclamide; groups 3, 4 and 5 served as test, and received 100 mg/kg bw, 150 mg/kg bw and 200 mg/kg bw of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf extract respectively orally for 28 days. After one week of acclimatization, diabetes was induced with a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) at a dose of 60 mg/kg bw. Phyto chemicals, phytonutrients and mineral compositions were also determined from the leaf extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius.

Results: The phytochemical screening of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius revealed highly abundant levels of alkaloids and flavonoids, with moderate levels of tannins and others. 6.0% crude protein, 37% crude fibre, 5.0% crude fat, 3.0% ash and 8.1% muslin were found as the phytonutrients of the extract. The mineral composition of per gram extract showed 13 mg iron, 95 mg phosphorus, 0.03 mg sodium, 89 mg magnesium, 22 mg potassium, 16 mg manganese, and 55 mg calcium. Hypoglycemic effect was investigated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice and a dose dependent reduction in blood glucose level was found to have with huge reduction at a dose of 200 mg/kg from 245.33±13.01 (mg/dl) to 187.03±7.19 (mg/dl) after intrapertitoneal administration (p<0.05) of extract.

Conclusions: Our achieved result revealed the ability of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius to lower blood glucose level and contained remarkable amount of various phyto components as well; hereby suggesting that it could serve as a better therapy for diabetes mellitus and paving way for further investigation to identify the actual bioactive compounds responsible.


Phytochemicals, Hypoglycemic, Streptozotocin, Diabetic

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