End tidal CO2 level (PETCO2) during laparoscopic surgery: comparison between spinal anaesthesia and general anaesthesia

Rahul S. Jadhav, Nitin N. Puram, Jaiprakash B. Ramanand, Ajit M. Zende, Rama R. Bhosale, Vitthal B. Karande


Background: Laparoscopy is a procedure which involves insufflations of the abdomen by a gas, so that endoscope can visualise intra abdominal content without being in direct contact with viscera or tissues. Its advantages are small incisions, less pain, less postoperative ileus, short hospital stay compared to traditional open method. Monitoring of end tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2) and hemodynamics is very necessary during Laparoscopy surgery. This study is conducted to find out effects of CO2 insufflation on parameters like PETCO2, Mean arterial pulse pressure, SPO2 under spinal anaesthesia and general anaesthesia in ASA I and ASA II patients.

Methods: The present study was conducted in the department of anaesthesiology from December 2014 to September 2015.This study was a prospective, randomized controlled, single blind. Each group consisted of 30 patients having Group A and Group B as patient undergoing laparoscopic surgery under Spinal anaesthesia and General anaesthesia respectively. Preoperatively patients in Group A (Spinal anaesthesia) given inj. Midazolam 0.3mg/kg IM 45 before surgery and Group B (General anaesthesia) inj. pentazocin 0.3mg/kg, inj. promethazine 0.5mg/kg, inj. Glycopyrrolate 0.004 mg/kg IM 45 before surgery. In operation theatre, intra operative pulseoximetre, ECG, SPO2, Heart rate (HR), Mean arterial pulse pressure and PETCO2 monitoring done. Amount of CO2 insufflated noted.

Results: It was found from present study that in both group there was significant progressive rise in PETCO2 after CO2 insufflation, with peak at 30 min and thereafter plateau till the end of procedure (avg. duration 45-60 min). In group A i.e. laparoscopic surgery under spinal anaesthesia with (spontaneous respiration) the rise in PETCO2 was significant as compared to the group B i.e. laparoscopic surgery under general anaesthesia with controlled ventilation. The heart rate increased after CO2 insufflation in both the group, but it was significant in group A. The increase in SBP, DBP, MAP were less in group A as compared to group B. SPO2 showed no significant changes and it remained above 97% in all patients throughout surgery. All values come to baseline 15 min after insufflation.

Conclusions: From the present study it can be concluded that balanced general anaesthesia using IPPV with moderate hyperventilation, as the preferred anaesthetic technique for laparoscopic surgery.


General anaesthesia, Laparoscopy, PETCO2, Spinal anaesthesia

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