Upper respiratory tract infection: drug utilization study
Keywords:Drug utilization, Upper respiratory tract infections, Antihistamines, Bronchodialotors, Antibiotics
Background: One of the most common causes of visit to physician is upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). This infection is often considered to be of little value from a stand point of mortality but this infection is responsible for limited activity and absence from work and school in the general population of nation mainly in a developing country like India, when compared it with other infections.
Methods: This study was conducted in Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Karad, India to see the prescription pattern of URTI patients in medicine department. It was a retrospective study record based, observational study and the data were collected from the medical record room.
Results: Out of 212 patients, 53.30% were of URTI, 31.60% were sinusitis, pharyngitis and CSOM accounted for 11.79% and 3.30% respectively. Female accounted for 62.26% and male for 37.73% of total cases. In 8 cases culture and sensitivity was done and all were sterile. Only in 8 cases antimicrobial agents were not prescribed.
Conclusions: Azithromycin was the most commonly used antimicrobial, followed by ceftriaxone. Apart from antibiotics the most frequently prescribed class was antihistamines followed by expectorants and bronchodilators. Paracetamol was the preferred antipyretic. Acid reducing agents were prescribed in 84.82% of Patients, might be used to check the acidity caused by antibiotics. The use of generic medicines should be promoted.
Ginde AA, Mansbach JM, Camargo CA. Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and upper respiratory tract infection in the third national health and nutrition examination survey. Archives Internal Med. 2009;169(4):384-90.
Finch RG. Epidemiological features and chemotherapy of community-acquired respiratory tract infections. J Antimicrobial Chemo. 1990;26:53.
Hemming VG. Viral respiratory diseases in children: classification, etiology, epidemiology, and risk factors. J Pediatrics. 1994;124(5):13-6.
Manoharan A, Winter J. Tackling upper respiratory tract infections. Practitioner. 2010;254(1734):25-9.
Upper respiratory tract infections Cleveland. Available at http:// www. clevelandclinicmeded. com/medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/infectious-disease/upper- respiratory- tract- infection/ Accessed on 1 August 2012.
Schroeder K, Fahey T. Over‐the‐counter medications for acute cough in children and adults in ambulatory settings. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;23(1):CD001831.
Foundation CMAC. Acute Respiratory Tract Infection Guideline Summary. Alliance Working for Antibiotic Resistance Education (AWARE). Available at https: //www.signup4.net/ Upload/KAIS13A/APRO281E/DeamerURTIsummaryflyer2007.pdf. Accessed on 12 September 2015.
Arroll B, Smith GF. General practitioner management of upper respiratory tract infections: when are antibiotics prescribed? N Z Med J. 2000;113(1122):493-6.
Huang N, Chou YJ, Chang HJ, Ho M, Morlock L. Antibiotic prescribing by ambulatory care physicians for adults with nasopharyngitis, URIs, and acute bronchitis in Taiwan: a multi-level modeling approach. Family Practice. 2005;22(2):160-7.
Dagan R, Klugman KP, Craig WA, Baquero F. Evidence to support the rationale that bacterial eradication in respiratory tract infection is an important aim of antimicrobial therapy. J Antimicrobial Chemothera. 2001;47(2):129-40.
Pradhan S, Shewade D, Shashindran C, Bapna J. Drug utilization studies. National Med J India. 1988;1:185-9.
Carroll K, Reimer L. Microbiology and laboratory diagnosis of upper respiratory tract infections. Clin Infect Dis. 1996;23(3):442-8.
Kaplan SL. The emergence of resistant pneumococcus as a pathogen in childhood upper respiratory tract infections. 1995;10(1):31-6.
Nandimath MK, Ahuja S. Drug prescribing pattern in upper respiratory tract infection in children aged 1-14 years. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences. 2012;3(1):299-308.
Luks D, Anderson MR. Antihistamines and the common cold. J General Internal Med. 1996;11(4):240-4.
Hemila H, Chalker E, Douglas B. Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;3:CD000980.