Effect of Alternanthera brasiliana in experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease in albino rats

Shivashankar P., Purushotham K., Mangala Lahkar


Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the gastrointestinal tract with limited therapeutic options. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of methanolic extract of Alternanthera brasiliana in acetic acid-induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in albino rats.

Methods: A total of 36 animals were included in the study. Animals were divided into six groups (n = 6 ): group I - control (normal saline), group II-AA+ normal saline, group III-Sulfasalazine (360mg/kg)+AA, group IV A-methanolic extract of Alternanthera brasiliana (300 mg/kg), group IV B-methanolic extract of Alternanthera brasiliana (600 mg/kg)+AA, group IV C-methanolic extract of Alternanthera brasiliana (900 mg/kg)+AA. Group IV was divided into three subgroups, namely IVA, IV B and IV C, on the basis of different doses of methanolic extract of Alternanthera brasiliana. After completion of 7 days of treatment, rats were sacrificed under ether anesthesia for assessment of intestinal inflammation using parameters namely colon weight change, macroscopic and histopathological evaluation.

Results: There was a statistically significant decrease in colonic weight, macroscopic scores and microscopic scores in groups treated with methanolic extract of Alternanthera brasiliana at a dose of 600 mg/kg.

Conclusions: The present study indicates the efficacy of methanolic extract of Alternanthera brasiliana in acetic acid-induced IBD. The effects are more pronounced at a dose of 600 mg/kg than at 300 mg/kg and 900 mg/kg of methanolic extract of Alternanthera brasiliana.


Inflammatory bowel disease, Methanolic extract of Alternanthera brasiliana, Colon weight change, Colon weight, Macroscopic evaluation, Histopathological evaluation

Full Text:



Friedman S, Blumberg S. Inflammatory bowel disease. In: Kasper DL, Braunwald U, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL, editors. Harrison’s Principles of Internal medicine, 18th Ed, McGraw-Hill;2012:1776-1788.

Podolsky DK. Inflammatory bowel disease. N Engl J Med.2002;347:417-29.

Bouma G, Strober W. The immunological and genetic basis of inflammatory bowel disease. Nat Rev Immunol. 2003;3:521-31.

Palmer KR, Penman ID. Disease of the alimentary tracts and pancreas. In: Davidson’s principle and practice of medicine, Eds. Haslett C, Chilvers ER, Hunter JAA, Boon NA, 18th edition. Churchill Livingstone, UK. 1999:659-68.

Kenneth M, Mcquid MD. Alimentary tract. In: Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment. 42nd edition. Tierney LM, Macphee SJ, Papadakis MA. McGraw Hill. Chicago;2003:602-11.

Kumar S. Phytopharmacological review of Alternanthera brasiliana (Amaranthaceae). Asian J Plant Sci Res. 2011;1(1):41-7.

Rego TJA. Fitogeografia das Plantas Medicinais no Maranhao. 2nd edn. Edufma, Sao Luis, MA, Brazil. 2995:108-9.

Anonymous. The Wealth of India - Raw Materials, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. 2005;206-7.

Gonçalves MIA; Martins DTO. Plantas medicinais usadas pela população do município de Santo Antônio de Leverger, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Rev Bras Farm Rio de Janeiro. 1998;79:56-61.

Macendo AF, Barbosa NC, Esquibel MA, Souza MM, Cechinel FV. Pharmacological and phytochemical studies of callus culture extracts from Alternanthera Brasiliana. Pharma Zie. 1999;54:776.

Lagrota MHC, Wigg MD, Miranda MMFS, Santos MGM, Costa SS. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus replication by different extracts of Caryophyllales. Biomed Lett. 1995;51(202):127-35.

Barua CC, Talukdar A, Begum SA, Sarma DK, Pathak DC, Barua AG, et al. Healing effi cacy of methanol extract of leaves of Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntze in aged wound model. Indian J Experimental Bio. 2009;47:1001-5.

Khare CP. Indian medicinal plants. Springer;2007:39.

Rego TJA. Fitogeografia das Plantas Medicinais no Maranhao. 2nd edition. Edufma, Sao Luis, Brazil;1995:108-9.

Cetinkaya A, Bulbuloglu E, Kantarceken B, Ciralik H, Kurutas EB, Buyukbese MA. et al. Effects of L-carnitine on oxidant/antioxidant status in acetic acid-induced colitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2006;51:488-94.

Medhi B, Prakash A, Avti PK, Saikia UN, Pandhi P, Khanduja KL. Effect of Manuka honey and sulfasalazine in combination to promote antioxidant defense system in experimentally induced ulcerative colitis model in rats. Indian J Experimental Bio. 2008;46:583-90.

Macpherson BR, Pfeiffer CJ. Experimental production of diffuse colitis in rats. Digestion. 1978;17:135-50.

Choudhary S, Keshavarzian A, Yong S, Wade M, Bocckino S, Day BJ, Banan A. Novel antioxidants zolimid ameliorate colitis in rats. Dig Dis Sci. 2001;46:2222-30.

Morris GP, Beck PL, Herridge MS, Depew WT, Szewezuk MR, Wallace JL. Hapten-induced model of chronic inflammation and ulceration in the rat colon. Gastroenterol. 1989;96:795-803.

Weir RF. A new use for the useless appendix in surgical treatment of obstinate colitis. Med Rec. 1902;62:201.

Kumar S, Singh P, Mishra G, Srivastav S, Jha KK, Khosa RL. Phytopharmacological review of Alternanthera brasiliana (Amaranthaceae). Asian J Plant Sci Res. 2011;1(1):41-7.

Nakhai LA, Mohammadirad A, Yasa N, Minaie B, Nikfar S, Ghazanfari G, et al. Benefits of Zataria multiflora boiss in experimental model of mouse inflammatory bowel disease. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2007;4:43-50.

Grisham MB, Granger DN. Neutrophil-mediated mucosal injury role of reactive oxygen metabolites. Dig Dis Sci. 1988;33:6-15.

Koutroubakis IE, Malliaraki N, Dimoulios PD, Karmiris K, Castanas E, Kouroumalis EA. Decreased total and corrected antioxidant capacity in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Dig Dis Sci. 2004;49:1433-7.