Impact of pharmacist counseling on the clinical outcomes in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus outpatients admitted to a hospital


  • Habsyah Rina Pharmaceutical Sciences Program, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
  • Azizah Nasution Department of Pharmacology and Clinical/Community Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
  • Khairunisa Department of Pharmacology and Clinical/Community Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia



Counselling, T2DM patients, BGL, HbA1C


Background: Type 2 Diabetes mellitus remains a global health problem due to its poor clinical outcomes, high morbidity, and mortality caused by many complicated problems, one of which is the ineffective role of pharmacists in providing counselling to DM patients

Methods: This pre and post cohort study analyzed the impact of pharmacist counselling on the blood glucose level and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) of T2DM outpatients (n=88) admitted to Asahan General Hospital period June to December 2022. Counselling provided comprised the importance of medication adherence and non-pharmacological approaches. Characteristics, BGLs and HbA1C of the patients were extracted from their medical records before and after counselling using a predetermined questionnaire. Characteristics of the patients were descriptively analyzed.

Results: The significance of the counselling on these outcomes was analyzed by applying Wilcoxon test (p <0.05 was considered significant). The mean age of the patients was 57.89±9.75 (years). Most (57.95%) of them were female. Proportion of the patients with controlled BGLs (%): before counselling, 27.7; after counselling, 89.8. Proportion of the patients with controlled HbA1C (%): before counselling, 27.3; after counselling, 89.8. Pharmacist counselling significantly improved the clinical outcomes of T2DM patients, p=0.000.

Conclusions: Pharmacist counselling plays an important role to improve BGLs and HbA1C in T2DM patients which can finally improve their quality of life.


Sun H, Saeedi P, Karuranga S, Pinkepank M, Ogurtsova K, Duncan BB, et al. IDF Diabetes Atlas: Global, regional and country-level diabetes prevalence estimates for 2021 and projections for 2045. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2022;183:109.

Ayele Y, Melaku K, Dechasa M, Ayalew MB, Horsa BA. Assessment of drug related problems among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with hypertension in Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Harar, Eastern Ethiopia. BMC Res Notes. 2018;11(1):728.

Choironisa N. Analisis skrining resep spesifikasi administratif, farmasetis, dan klinis resep pasien jantung koroner di apotek “x” kota tulungagung periode maret–mei 2022’, Stikes Karya Putra Bangsa Tulungagung, 2022. Available at: Accessed on 3 July 2023.

Aligita W, Susilawati E, Sukmawati IK, Holidayanti L, Riswanti J. Antidiabetic activities of Muntingia calabura L. leaves water extract in type 2 diabetes mellitus animal models’, Indo Biomed J. 2018;10(2):165-70.

Saputri GZ, Akrom A, Muhlis M, Muthoharoh A. Efek konseling menggunakan brief counseling 5A modifikasi disertai pesan motivasional farmasis dalam peningkatan perilaku dan outcome klinik pasien diabetes melitus dengan hipertensi rawat jalan di RSUD Panembahan Senopati, Bantul. Farmasi. 2019;8(1):23-9.

Ahmad NN, Robinson S, Kennedy-Martin T, Poon JL, Kan H. Clinical outcomes associated with anti-obesity medications in real-world practice: A systematic literature review. Obes Rev. 2021;22(11):e13326.

AlShayban DM, Naqvi AA, Alhumaid O, AlQahtani AS, Islam MA, Ghori SA, et al. Association of Disease Knowledge and Medication Adherence Among Out-Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Khobar, Saudi Arabia. Front Pharmacol. 2020;11:60.

Setyaningsih EP, Saputri FC, Mun’im A. The antidiabetic effectivity of Indonesian plants extracts via DPP-IV inhibitory mechanism. J Young Pharmac. 2019;11(2):161.

Suyono S. Penatalaksanaan Diabetes Melitus Terpadu edisi keempat. Ilmu Penyak Dalam. 2013;2:12.

Sari H, Kaban VE, Situmorang FR, Fahdi F. Uji efektivitas antidiabetes kombinasi ekstrak daun meniran (Phyllanthus niruri L.). J Penel Farma Herbal. 2019;2(1):24-8.

Fahmi NF, Firdaus N, Putri N. Pengaruh Waktu Penundaan Terhadap Kadar Glukosa Darah Sewaktu Dengan Metode Poct Pada Mahasiswa. J Ilmiah Ilmu Keperawatan. 2020;11(2):2623-871.

Susilo AS, Zulfian Z, Artini I. Korelasi Nilai HbA1c dengan Kadar Kolesterol Total pada Pasien Diabetes Mellitus Tipe 2. J Ilmiah Kesehatan Sandi Husada. 2020;9(2):640-5.

Lind M, Imberg H, Coleman RL, Nerman O, Holman RR. Historical HbA1c values may explain the type 2 diabetes legacy effect: UKPDS 88. Diab Care. 2021; 44(10):2231-7,

Sauriasari R, Hening W, Sartika RD. Effect of hospital pharmacist counseling on clinical outcomes of type 2 diabetes mellitus outpatients. J Res Pharm Pract. 2019;8(3):155.

Khan YH, Alzarea AI, Alotaibi NH, Alatawi AD, Khokhar A, Alanazi AS, et al. Evaluation of Impact of a Pharmacist-Led Educational Campaign on Disease Knowledge, Practices and Medication Adherence for Type-2 Diabetic Patients: A Prospective Pre- and Post-Analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022;19(16):100.




How to Cite

Rina, H., Nasution, A., & Khairunisa. (2023). Impact of pharmacist counseling on the clinical outcomes in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus outpatients admitted to a hospital. International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 13(1), 42–46.



Original Research Articles