Comparison of microvascular endothelial function as measured by laser Doppler flowmeter among non-smoker and smoker males

Authors

  • Suresh Kumar Srinivasamurthy Department of Pharmacology, Ras Al Khaimah College of Medical Sciences, Ras Al Khaimah Medical and Health Sciences University, Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates
  • Laxminarayana Kurady Bairy Department of Pharmacology, Ras Al Khaimah College of Medical Sciences, Ras Al Khaimah Medical and Health Sciences University, Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates
  • Sareesh Narayanan Naduvil Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, AUC UK-Track MD Program, University of Central Lancashire, Vernon Building, Lancashire, UK

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20230322

Keywords:

Microvascular endothelial function, Smokers, Laser doppler flowmetry, Endothelial dependent vasodilation

Abstract

Background: To understand the role of smoking in influencing endothelial function as assessed by LDF among non-smoker and smoker males.

Methods: The LDF measurement for a total of 35 non-smokers and 16 smokers was done in the central research laboratory after written informed consent. The change in LDF signal in response to acetylcholine 100 µl, which was delivered to the forearm skin by iontophoresis, was measured as perfusion units (PU).

Results: The pre-ACh LDF signal were statistically not significant between the groups. The increase in LDF signal was more prominent in non-smoker group. The LDF signal parameters such as differences in minimal response pre and post-ACh; difference in mean response pre and post ACh; the difference in maximal response pre and post ACh was not statistically significant between groups. However, the difference in the area under curve (AUC) pre and post-ACh (PU.min) (non-smoker 20089.34 (3438.92) vs smoker 13220.72 (3379.52); p=0.16) showed a trend towards statistical significance.

Conclusions: Microvascular endothelial function as assessed by LDF signal among smokers (pack-years;1.9±1.44) and non-smokers is statistically insignificant. However, lower microvascular endothelial function is observed among smokers.

References

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) [cited Jul 20, 2022]. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cardiovascular-diseases-(cvds). Accessed on 20 July, 2022.

Martin BJ, Anderson TJ. Risk prediction in cardiovascular disease: the prognostic significance of endothelial dysfunction. Can J Cardiol. 2009;25:15A-20.

Bruno RM, Masi S, Taddei M, Taddei S, Virdis A. Essential hypertension and functional microvascular ageing. High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev. 2018;25(1):35-40.

Routledge FS, Hinderliter AL, Blumenthal JA, Sherwood A. Sex differences in the endothelial function of untreated hypertension. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2012;14(4):228-35.

Meyers MR, Gokce N. Endothelial dysfunction in obesity: Etiological role in atherosclerosis. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2007;14(5):365-9.

Poredos P, Orehek M, Tratnik E. Smoking is associated with dose-related increase of intima-media thickness and endothelial dysfunction. Angiology. 1999;50(3):201-8.

Kanaya AM, Dobrosielski DA, Ganz P, Creasman J, Gupta R, Nelacanti V et al. Glycemic associations with endothelial function and biomarkers among 5 ethnic groups: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America studies. J Am Heart Assoc. 2013;2(1):e004283.

Krishnan RM, Adar SD, Szpiro AA, Jorgensen NW, Van Hee VC, Barr RG et al. Vascular responses to long- and short-term exposure to fine particulate matter: MESA Air (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;60(21):2158-66.

Yim J, Petrofsky J, Berk L, Daher N, Lohman E. Differences in endothelial function between Korean-Asians and Caucasians. Med Sci Monit. 2012;18(6):CR337-43.

Charles LE, Fekedulegn D, Landsbergis P, Burchfiel CM, Baron S, Kaufman JD et al. Associations of work hours, job strain, and occupation with endothelial function: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). J Occup Environ Med. 2014;56(11):1153-60.

Münzel T, Hahad O, Kuntic M, Keaney JF, Deanfield JE, Daiber A. Effects of tobacco cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and waterpipe smoking on endothelial function and clinical outcomes. Eur Heart J. 2020;41(41):4057-70.

WHO global report on trends in prevalence of tobacco use 2000-2025. 3rd ed. Available at: https://www.who.int/publications-detail-redirect/who-global-report-on-trends-in-prevalence-of-tobacco-use-2000-2025-third-edition. Accessed on 9 September, 2022.

Teo KK, Ounpuu S, Hawken S, Pandey MR, Valentin V, Hunt D et al. Tobacco use and risk of myocardial infarction in 52 countries in the interheart study: A case-control study. Lancet. 2006;368(9536):647-58.

Lekakis J, Abraham P, Balbarini A, Blann A, Boulanger CM, Cockcroft J et al. Methods for evaluating endothelial function: A position statement from the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Peripheral Circulation. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2011;18(6):775-89.

Turner J, Belch JJF, Khan F. Current concepts in assessment of microvascular endothelial function using laser Doppler imaging and iontophoresis. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2008;18(4):109-16.

Cracowski JL, Minson CT, Salvat-Melis M, Halliwill JR. Methodological issues in the assessment of skin microvascular endothelial function in humans. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2006;27(9):503-8.

Dean AG, Sullivan KM, Soe MM. OpenEpi: Open Source Epidemiologic Statistics for Public Health, Version. Available at: www.OpenEpi.com. Accessed on 02 December 2022.

Kubli S, Waeber B, Dalle-Ave A, Feihl F. Reproducibility of laser Doppler imaging of skin blood flow as a tool to assess endothelial function. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2000;36(5):640-8.

Klonizakis M, Alkhatib A, Middleton G, Smith MF. Mediterranean diet- and exercise-induced improvement in age-dependent vascular activity. Clin Sci (Lond). 2013;124(9):579-87.

Smith MF, Ellmore M, Middleton G, Murgatroyd PM, Gee TI. Effects of resistance band exercise on vascular activity and fitness in older adults. Int J Sports Med. 2017;38(3):184-92.

Lind L, Sarabi M, Millgård J. The effect of smoking on endothelial vasodilatory function evaluated by local infusion of metACholine in the forearm is dependent on the duration of smoking. Nicotine Tob Res. 2003;5(1):125-30.

Sarabi M, Lind L. Short-term effects of smoking and nicotine chewing gum on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in young healthy habitual smokers. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2000;35(3):451-6.

Dikalov S, Itani H, Richmond B, Vergeade A, Rahman SMJ, Boutaud O et al. Tobacco smoking induces cardiovascular mitochondrial oxidative stress, promotes endothelial dysfunction, and enhances hypertension. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2019;316(3):H639-46.

Johnson HM, Gossett LK, Piper ME, Aeschlimann SE, Korcarz CE, Baker TB et al. Effects of smoking and smoking cessation on endothelial function: 1-year outcomes from a randomized clinical trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;55(18):1988-95.

Jacobs MC, Lenders JW, Kapma JA, Smits P, Thien T. Effect of chronic smoking on endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in humans. Clin Sci (Lond). 1993;85(1):51-5.

McVeigh GE, Lemay L, Morgan D, Cohn JN. Effects of long-term cigarette smoking on endothelium-dependent responses in humans. Am J Cardiol. 1996;78(6):668-72.

Rångemark C, Wennmalm A. Endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation and reactive hyperemia in healthy smokers. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1992;20(12):S198-201.

Celermajer DS, Sorensen KE, Georgakopoulos D, Bull C, Thomas O, Robinson J et al. Cigarette smoking is associated with dose-related and potentially reversible impairment of endothelium-dependent dilation in healthy young adults. Circulation. 1993;88(5 Pt 1):2149-55.

Zeiher AM, Schächinger V, Minners J. Long-term cigarette smoking impairs endothelium-dependent coronary arterial vasodilator function. Circulation. 1995;92(5):1094-100.

Esen AM, Barutcu I, Acar M, Degirmenci B, Kaya D, Turkmen M et al. Effect of smoking on endothelial function and wall thickness of brAChial artery. Circ J. 2004;68(12):1123-6.

Yufu K, Takahashi N, Hara M, Saikawa T, Yoshimatsu H. Measurement of the brAChial-ankle pulse wave velocity and flow-mediated dilatation in young, healthy smokers. Hypertens Res. 2007;30(7):607-12.

Santo-Tomas M, Lopez-Jimenez F, MAChado H, Aldrich HR, Lamas GA, Lieberman EH. Effect of cigar smoking on endothelium-dependent brAChial artery dilation in healthy young adults. Am Heart J. 2002;143(1):83-6.

Holay MP, Paunikar NP, Joshi PP, Sahasrabhojney VS, Tankhiwale SR. Effect of passive smoking on endothelial function in: healthy adults. J Assoc Physicians India. 2004;52:114-7.

Ciftçi O, Günday M, Calişkan M, Güllü H, Güven A, Müderrisoğlu H. Light cigarette smoking and vascular function. Acta Cardiol. 2013;68(3):255-61.

Hashimoto H, Maruhashi T, Yamaji T, Harada T, Han Y, Takaeko Y et al. Smoking status and endothelial function in Japanese men. Sci Rep. 2021;11(1):95.

Woo KS, Chook P, Leong HC, Huang XS, Celermajer DS. The impact of heavy passive smoking on arterial endothelial function in modernized Chinese. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000;36(4):1228-32.

Cui M, Cui R, Liu K, Dong JY, Imano H, Hayama-Terada M et al. Associations of tobacco smoking with impaired endothelial function: The circulatory risk in communities study (CIRCS). J Atheroscler Thromb. 2018;25(9):836-45.

Alexander Y, Osto E, Schmidt-Trucksäss A, Shechter M, Trifunovic D, Duncker DJ et al. Endothelial function in cardiovascular medicine: A consensus paper of the European Society of Cardiology Working Groups on Atherosclerosis and Vascular Biology, Aorta and Peripheral Vascular Diseases, Coronary Pathophysiology and Microcirculation, and Thrombosis. Cardiovasc Res. 2021;117(1):29-42.

Downloads

Published

2023-02-09

How to Cite

Srinivasamurthy, S. K., Bairy, L. K., & Naduvil, S. N. (2023). Comparison of microvascular endothelial function as measured by laser Doppler flowmeter among non-smoker and smoker males. International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 12(2), 142–147. https://doi.org/10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20230322

Issue

Section

Original Research Articles