A retrospective study on the clinical picture of COVID-19 patients associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus in India
Keywords:COVID-19, Diabetes mellitus, Retrospective studies
Background: The clinical characterization of COVID varies from mild to severe. In the initial phases of the disease, symptoms like fever, cough, and dyspnea can occur. The severity and outcome of COVID vary with preexisting conditions, particularly type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Objective of current study was to assess the clinical presentation and laboratory derangements of COVID-19 patients associated with T2DM.
Methods: The present retrospective study was started after the approval of the Institutional Ethics Committee. Various clinical (Sp02, final diagnosis, co-morbidity, and outcome) and biochemical parameters (CBC, LFT, RFT, LDH, Trop I, CK-MB D-dimer, CRP, ferritin levels, RBS, HbA1c) of Covid-19 patients were collected from Central Laboratory and & Medical Record Department of our institution. Patient names were anonymized and data were analyzed. The results are expressed in percentages.
Results: A total of 24 COVID-19 patients (with T2DM) details were collected from the medical record department and central laboratory. Out of 24 patients, 16 (66.6%) were male, and the remaining 08 (33.3%) were female. Out of 24, 05 patients had mild covid, 02 were moderate and the remaining 17 suffered from severe COVID. The mean values of oxygen saturation, LDH, D-dimer, Troponin-I, CRP, Ferritin, Procalcitonin, and CK-MB were 76%, 797.3 U/l, 1614.2 ng/ml, 6.93 ng/ml, 72.6 mg/dl, 521.2 µg/l, 2.33 µg/l and 40.59 ng/ml respectively. The average random blood sugar level and glycosylated hemoglobin were 308.8 mg/dl and HbA1c 10.22%. Mean values of 42.5 mg/dl and 1.54 mg/dl were recorded for blood urea and S. creatinine. Regarding liver function test, mean values of 0.87 mg/dl, 0.37 mg/dl, 0.49mg/dl, 344.8U/l, 115.6U/l,108U/l respectively noted for total bilirubin, direct, indirect, SGOT, SGPT and ALP. Regarding patient outcome, 09 (37.5%) patients recovered and 15 (62.5%) died due to COVID. The values of glycosylated Hb and random blood sugar among the 15 patients who died due to covid infection suggested uncontrolled diabetes Mellitus in 7 of them with associated hypertension and died due to septic shock.
Conclusions: Though the laboratory mean values of the liver function test and renal function test shows moderate variations the mean values of CRP, LDH, Procalcitonin, and Ferritin which are the acute inflammatory markers are highly disrupted when compared to normal ranges.
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