A role of biomarkers in systemic lupus erythematous: a comprehensive review

Shashank Jindam, Pranav Koraseeka, Suvarna Addagarla, Ramya B. P. Gelly


Systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) is an auto immune disease that can involve almost all body organs. Lupus erythematous may be classified in to several subtypes according to clinical features including systemic and cutaneous lupus erythematous, drug induced lupus and neonatal lupus. SLE progression includes in the immune system. Pathological manifestation of SLE are due to antibody formation and deposition of immune complexes in different organs of the body. Due to formation or disposition of immune complex in different body tissues and vessels, which may lead to complement activation and more organ damage. Other factors include genetic factors, hormonal abnormalities and environmental factors. There is a challenge in establishing a diagnosis, determining disease activity. Therefore, an important needs is a repertoire of biomarkers that can accurately with prediction, diagnosis, and disease, activity monitoring and stratifying patient. SLE can be diagnosed by using different biomarkers as anti-smith antibodies (ANAS), antibodies to double stand deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and level of complement components C3 C4, and CH50. More immunological biomarkers are needed to be better understanding of disease SLE. SLE is an autoimmune disease which can travel to any organ or a system i.e. biomarkers for cardiovascular involvement in SLE, biomarkers for respiratory involvement in SLE, biomarkers for lupus arthritis.


Systemic lupus erythematous, Biomarkers, Diagnosis, Disease activity

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