Evaluation of analgesics use in orthopedic department at tertiary care hospital in Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India

Pooja Agrawal, Vijender Kumar Agrawal


Background: Analgesics including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly prescribed group of drugs in clinical practice for the management of pain and inflammation. This study was carried out to evaluate the prescribing pattern of analgesics in orthopedic in-patient department of tertiary care teaching hospital at Bareilly (Uttar Pradesh).

Methods: This hospital based cross-sectional study was carried out for 3 months from March to May 2015. Collected data included age, sex, diagnosis and line of management during the study. The generic name and the average cost of treatment per patient were evaluated using Indian Drug Review, 2014. The prescribed drugs were assessed with respective National Model List of Essential Medicines (NLEM), 2011 and the rationality of prescriptions was determined using the World Health Organization indicators of drug utilization. The patients' details were recorded in a data collection form and results were analysed by descriptive statistics.

Results: Out of 400 patients, 246 were male and 154 were female. The average number of analgesic per prescription was 1.48. In this study, 52.5% of patients had received single analgesic. Diclofenac was the most commonly prescribed analgesic (45.39%). During hospitalization, majority of the patients have received parenteral preparation. Gastro protective agents and antimicrobials were frequently prescribed along with analgesics. Out of 584 analgesics prescribed, 356 (60.96%) were from the NLEM, India. Furthermore, 276 (47.26%) analgesics were prescribed by generic name. The average cost of treatment per patient was 2050.70 INR. Utilization of analgesic in terms of defined daily dose/100 bed-days was 102.06.

Conclusions: The percentages of analgesics prescribing from NLEM and the use of analgesic by generic name were found satisfactory.


Analgesics, Orthopedics, Prescription pattern

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