Linezolid resistance in vancomycin resistant enterococci: a worrisome situation
AbstractVancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens since 1986. VRE have been associated with higher morbidity and mortality rates than vancomycin susceptible enterococci.Of over 50 species of Enterococcus, a genus of Gram-positive cocci arranged in pairs and short chains, E. faecalis is the most common cause of infections whereas E. faecium is the species exhibiting highest rate of antibiotic resistance. VRE have been implicated in varieties of infections such as bacteremia, infective endocarditis, intra-abdominal and pelvic infections, urinary tract infections, central nervous system infections and skin and skin structure infections.
O’Driscoll T, Crank CT. vancomycin-resistant enterococcal infections: epidemiology, clinical manifestations and optimal management. Infect Drug resist. 2015;8:217-30.
Leach KL, Brickner SJ, Noe MC, Miller PF. Linezolid, the first oxazolidinone antibacterial agent. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011;1222:49-54.
Batts DH. Linezolid-a new option for treating Gram-positive infections. Oncology. 2000;14(8-6):23-9.
Bi R, Qin T, Fan W, Ma P, Gu B. The emerging problem of linezolid-resistant enterococci. J Global Antimirob Resist. 2018;11-9.
Chua WC, Zaidah AR. First reported cases of linezolid resistant vancomycin-resistant Enterococci in South-East Asia: A report of three cases and literature review. Proc Singapore Healthc. 2020;1-4.
Kerschner H, Cabal A, Hartl R, Machherndl-Spandl S, Allerberger F. Hospital outbreak caused by linezolid resistant Enterococcus faecium in Upper Austria. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2019;8:150.
Li P, Yang Y, Ding L, Xu X, Lin D. Molecular Investigations of Linezolid Resistance in Enterococci Optr A Variants from a Hospital in Shanghai. 2020;2020:(13):2711-6.
De Almeida LM, De Araujo MRE, Iwasaki MR, Sacramento AG, Rocha D, Da Silva LP et al. Linezolid Resistance in Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis
and Enterococcus faecium Isolates in a Brazilian Hospital. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014;58(5):2993-4.
Raddaoui A, Chebbi Y, Tanfous FB, Mabrouk A, Achour W. First description of clinical linezolid resistant Enterococcus sp. in North Africa. J Global Antimirob Resist. 2020;21:169-70.
Zou J, Tank Z, Yan J, Liu H, Chen Y, Zhang D et al. Dissemination of linezolid resistance through sex pheromone plasmid transfer in Enterococcus faecalis. Front Microbiol. 2020;11:1185.
Mutschler M, Trojan S, Defosse JM, Helmers A, Probst C, Bouillon B et al. Severe sepsis caused by a linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecium in a 10-year-old girl after multiple trauma. Int J Infect Dis. 2013;17(6):e466-7.