Anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the ethanol root bark extract of Salacia lehmbachii in rats and mice

Godwin C. Akuodor, Sylvester C. Ohadoma, Casimir C. Ofor, Anthony U. Megwas, Leo C. Chukwu, Mansur A. Ramalan, Dorcas O. Okoroafor, Kingsley C. Chilaka


Background: The decoction of the roots of Salacia lehmbachi is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of different diseases such as malaria pains diabetes and microbial infections.

Methods: Phytochemical screening and oral acute toxicity tests were carried out on the ethanol root extract of the plant. Anti-nocicetive activity using acetic acid induced writhing and tail immersion method in mice, anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan induced paw oedema in rats and xylene induced ear oedema test in mice and antipyretic activity using Brewer’s yeast and D-amphetamine induced pyrexia in rats were determined at 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg doses of the root extract.

Results: The ethanol root extract contain alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids and cardiac glycosides. The oral acute toxicity tests was found to be greater than 5000 mg/kg. The root extract and the standard drug (Aspirin) significantly (p<0.05 and p<0.01) decreased the number of writhes caused by acetic acid. The extract and morphine significantly (p<0.05 and p<0.01) prolonged reaction time in tail immersion model. The extract produced significant (p<0.05 and p<0.01) dose dependent inhibition of oedema which was comparable to aspirin in carrageenan induced paw oedema model. The root extract also demonstrated significant (p<0.05 and p<0.01) effect in xylene induced mouse ear oedema test compared to dexamethasone. The extract significantly decreased high temperature in both Brewer’s yeast and d-amphetamine induced pyrexia.

Conclusions: Findings show that S. lehmbachii may provide a good source of plant compounds with analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities.


Salacia lehmbachii, Analgesic, Anti-inflamatory, Antipyretic, Rats, Mice

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