A recent review on 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak
Keywords:COVID-19, SARS-Cov2, Pandemic, Infection
SARS-CoV2, a single-stranded RNA virus that can cause a wide array of clinical manifestations ranging from mild to severe (respiratory failure). The spread of SARS-CoV2 has now become uncontrollable leading to a pandemic. The infection is usually transmitting through cough droplets and sneeze. The main clinical manifestations of the disease are similar to common respiratory tract infections and may become fatal after the development of symptoms such as severe dyspnea, low PaO2/FiO2 (fraction of inspired oxygen) ratio, and severe decline in blood oxygen saturation. Current diagnostic tools employed at the moment include time-consuming NAAT (nucleic acid amplification test). Recent investigations and researches are aimed at rapid serological testing. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT- PCR) is the standard method of testing, using respiratory samples obtained by the nasopharyngeal swab. Medications such as darunavir, ribavirin, remdesivir, interferon, and lopinavir/ritonavir combination therapy were used for the management of the infection. Social distancing, use of protective masks, isolation of the infected persons and maintaining personal hygiene helps in the prevention of the disease.
Dhama K, Sharun K, Tiwari R, Sircar S, Bhat S, Malik YS et al. Coronavirus disease 2019-COVID-19.
Sahin AR, Erdogan A, Agaoglu PM, Dineri Y, Cakirci AY, Senel ME et al. 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreak: A Review of the Current Literature. EJMO. 2020;4(1):1-7.
She J, Jiang J, Ye L, Hu L, Bai C, Song Y. 2019 novel coronavirus of pneumonia in Wuhan, China: emerging attack and management strategies. CTM. 2020;9(1):1-7.
Johnson HC, Gossner CM, Colzani E, Kinsman J, Alexakis L, Beauté J et al. Potential scenarios for the progression of a COVID-19 epidemic in the European Union and the European Economic Area, March 2020. Eurosurveillance. 2020;25(9).
Van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris DH, Holbrook MG, Gamble A, Williamson BN et al. Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1. NEJM. 2020;382:1564-7.
Chan JF, Yuan S, Kok KH, To KK, Chu H, Yang J et al. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. Lancet. 2020;395(10223):514-23.
Bosch A, Gkogka E, Le Guyader FS, Loisy-Hamon F, Lee A, Van Lieshout L et al. Foodborne viruses: Detection, risk assessment, and control options in food processing. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 2018;285:110-28.
Mission WC. Report of the WHO-China Joint Mission on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Geneva 2020.
Binnicker MJ. Emergence of a Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) and the Importance of Diagnostic Testing: Why Partnership between Clinical Laboratories, Public Health Agencies, and Industry Is Essential to Control the Outbreak. Clin Chem. 2020;66(5):664-6.
Amanat F, Nguyen T, Chromikova V, Strohmeier S, Stadlbauer D, Javier A et al. A serological assay to detect SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in humans. medRxiv. 2020;2.
Bordi L, Nicastri E, Scorzolini L, Di Caro A, Capobianchi MR, Castilletti C et al. Differential diagnosis of illness in patients under investigation for the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), Italy, February 2020. Euro surveillance. 2020;25(8).
Ai T, Yang Z, Hou H, Zhan C, Chen C, Lv W et al. Correlation of chest CT and RT-PCR testing in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China: a report of 1014 cases. Radiol. 2020:200642.
Shi H, Han X, Jiang N, Cao Y, Alwalid O, Gu J et al. Radiological findings from 81 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020;20(4):425-34.
Bosch BJ, Van der Zee R, De Haan CA, Rottier PJ. The coronavirus spike protein is a class I virus fusion protein: structural and functional characterization of the fusion core complex. J Virol. 2003;77(16):8801-11.
Lu R, Zhao X, Li J, Niu P, Yang B, Wu H et al. Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding. Lancet. 2020;395(10224):565-74.
Rockx B, Kuiken T, Herfst S, Bestebroer T, Lamers M, De Meulder D et al. Comparative Pathogenesis Of COVID-19, MERS And SARS In A Non-Human Primate Model. bioRxiv. 2020.
Zumla A, Hui DS, Azhar EI, Memish ZA, Maeurer M. Reducing mortality from 2019-nCoV: host-directed therapies should be an option. Lancet. 2020;395(10224):e35-6.
Lu H. Drug treatment options for the 2019-new coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Bio sci Trends. 2020;14(1):69-71.
Beigel JH, Nam HH, Adams PL, Krafft A, Ince WL, El-Kamary SS et al. Advances in respiratory virus therapeutics–A meeting report from the 6th isirv Antiviral Group conference. Antiviral res. 2019;167:45-67.
Ibanez S, Martinez O, Valenzuela F, Silva F, Valenzuela O. Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine in COVID-19: should they be used as standard therapy? Clin Rheumatol. 2020;3:1.
Wang M, Cao R, Zhang L, Yang X, Liu J, Xu M et al. Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell research. 2020;30(3):269-71.
Singh AK, Majumdar S, Singh R, Misra A. Role of corticosteroid in the management of COVID-19: A systemic review and a Clinician's perspective. Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome. Clin Res Reviews. 2020;14(5):971-8.
Johnson RM, Vinetz JM. Dexamethasone in the management of COVID-19. BMJ. 2020;370:m2648.
Jalkanen J, Hollmen M, Jalkanen S. Interferon beta-1a for COVID-19: critical importance of the administration route. Crit Care. 2020;24(1):1-3.
Omrani AS, Saad MM, Baig K, Bahloul A, Abdul-Matin M, Alaidaroos AY et al. Ribavirin and interferon alfa-2a for severe Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014;14(11):1090-5.
Agostini ML, Andres EL, Sims AC, Graham RL, Sheahan TP, Lu X.et al. Coronavirus susceptibility to the antiviral remdesivir (GS-5734) is mediated by the viral polymerase and the proofreading exoribonuclease. MBio. 2018;9(2):e00221-18.
Warren T, Jordan R, Lo M, Soloveva V, Ray A, Bannister R et al. Nucleotide prodrug GS-5734 is a broad-spectrum filovirus inhibitor that provides complete therapeutic protection against the development of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in infected non-human primates. Infect Dis. 2015;2(1):LB2.
Liu W, Morse JS, Lalonde T, Xu S. Learning from the past: possible urgent prevention and treatment options for severe acute respiratory infections caused by 2019‐nCoV. Chembiochem. 2020;21(5):730-8.
Dong L, Hu S, Gao J. Discovering drugs to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Drug Discoveries Therap. 2020;14(1):58-60.
Khalid M, Al Rabiah F, Khan B, Al Mobeireek A, Butt TS, Al Mutairy E. Case report Ribavirin and interferon-α2b as primary and preventive treatment for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: a preliminary report of two cases. Antiviral therapy. 2015;20:87-91.
Khalili JS, Zhu H, Mak NS, Yan Y, Zhu Y. Novel coronavirus treatment with ribavirin: Groundwork for an evaluation concerning COVID‐19. J med virol. 2020;10.1002/jmv.25798.
Chan KW, Wong VT, Tang SC. COVID-19: An Update on the Epidemiological, Clinical, Preventive and Therapeutic Evidence and Guidelines of Integrative Chinese–Western Medicine for the Management of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease. Am J Chinese Med. 2020:1-26.
Thammathiwat T, Tungsanga S, Tiankanon K, Torvorapanit P, Chumpangern W, Udomkarnjananun S, et al. A Case of Successful Treatment of Severe COVID‐19 Pneumonia with Favipiravir and Tocilizumab in Post‐kidney Transplant Recipient. Transplant Infect Dis. 2020:e13388.
Tagarro A, Epalza C, Santos M, Sanz-Santaeufemia FJ, Otheo E, Moraleda C et al. Screening and severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children in Madrid, Spain. JAMA pediatrics. 2020;e201346.
Licskai C, Yang CL, Ducharme FM, Radhakrishnan D, Podgers D, Ramsey C et al. Addressing therapeutic questions to help Canadian physicians optimize asthma management for their patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Canad J Respiratory Crit Care Sleep Med. 2020:1-4.
Huang J, Lin H, Wu Y, Fang Y, Kumar R, Chen G et al. COVID-19 in post-transplantation patients-report of two cases. Am J Transplant. 2020;3:10.
Mei Y, Luo D, Wei S, Liao X, Pan Y et al. Obstetric Management of COVID-19 in Pregnant Women. Frontiers Microbiol. 2020;11:1186.
Alinaghi S, Ghadimi M, Hajiabdolbaghi M, et al. Prevalence of COVID-19-like symptoms among people living with HIV, and using antiretroviral therapy for prevention and treatment. Curr HIV Res. 2020;18(5):373-80.
Giovannoni G, Hawkes C, Lechner-Scott J, Levy M, Waubant E, Gold J. The COVID-19 pandemic and the use of MS disease-modifying therapies. Multiple Sclerosis Rel Disord. 2020;39:102073.
Chen L, Xiong J, Bao L, Shi Y. Convalescent plasma as a potential therapy for COVID-19. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020;20(4):398-400.
Jin Y, Yang H, Ji W, Wu W, Chen S, Zhang W et al. Virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and control of COVID-19. Viruses. 2020;12(4):372.
Peeri NC, Shrestha N, Rahman MS, Zaki R, Tan Z, Bibi S et al. The SARS, MERS and novel coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemics, the newest and biggest global health threats: what lessons have we learned? Int J Epidemiol. 2020;49(3):717-26.
Rothe C, Schunk M, Sothmann P, Bretzel G, Froeschl G, Wallrauch C et al. Transmission of 2019-nCoV infection from an asymptomatic contact in Germany. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(10):970-71.
Alfahan A, Alhabib S, Abdulmajeed I, Rahman S, Bamuhair S. In the era of corona virus: health care professionals’ knowledge, attitudes, and practice of hand hygiene in Saudi primary care centers: a cross-sectional study. J. Community Hosp. Intern. Med. Perspect. 2016;6(4):32151.