Fulminant Guillain Barre syndrome with recurrent lung collapse
Keywords:Polyneuropathy, Flaccid weakness, Respiratory failure
Fulminant Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rapidly progressive form of polyneuropathy in which patients demonstrate eventual flaccid quadriplegia and an absence of brainstem function. Most patients present initially with a mild upper respiratory or gastrointestinal illness and have non-diagnostic cerebral imaging studies. Here we report the case of child aged 7 who was admitted initially with complaints of weakness of lower limbs lasting for 4-5 hours. He had difficulty in standing and walking, associated with pain in both lower limbs. Flaccid weakness rapidly progressed over 12 hours to involve both upper limbs along with difficulty in swallowing and nasal regurgitation of feeds. He was intubated and mechanically ventilated for respiratory failure. Over the period of time, after confirmation with all the test reports and symptoms, other differential diagnoses were ruled out and fulminant GBS was considered and hence plasmapheresis was started. Over the period of 3 months his muscle power slowly improved. During discharge, he was able to lift limbs against minimal resistance, turn sideways on bed, sit up with minimal support and likewise stand with support.
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