Antifungal activity of ethanolic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. against Dermatophytes and Candida species


  • Preeja K. Sundaresan Department of Pharmacology, Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala
  • Kala P. Kesavan Department of Pharmacology, Government Medical College, Aleppey, Kerala



Sphaeranthus indicus Linn, Candida albicans, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, antifungal action


Background: Sphaeranthus indicus as an entire plant or the specific parts like roots, leaves, flowers are used for treating helminthiasis, jaundice, diabetes, dyspepsia, fever, cough, hernia, gastritis, hemorrhoids, migraine, leprosy and skin diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of ethanolic extract of the whole plant Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.

Methods: The antifungal activity of ethanolic extract of the whole plant Sphaeranthus indicus Linn was evaluated by incorporating the extract in Sabourauds dextrose agar. This property was studied in vitro using the ethanolic extract on Candida albicans, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Epidermophyton floccosum by using Clotrimazole as standard drug.

Results: This study revealed that the ethanolic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus is having good antifungal activity against Dermatophytes and Candida species.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates the promising antifungal action of ethanolic extract of whole plant of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. This feature can be exploited in the development of a newer antifungal agent from plant. 


Wu TC. On the development of antifungal agents: perspective of the US Food and Drug Administration. Clin Infect Dis. 1994;19:S54-8.

Walsh TJ, Gonzalez C, Lyman CA, Chanock SJ, Pizzo PA. Invasive fungal infections in children: recent advances in diagnosis and treatment. Adv Pediatr Infect Dis. 1996;11:187-290.

Portillo A, Vila R, Freixa B, Ferro E, Parello T, Casanova J, et al. Phenylethanoid glycosides from Cistanches salsa inhibit apoptosis induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion in neurons. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;97:49.

Cannon RD, Holmes AR, Mason AB, Monk BC. Oral candida: clearance, colonization or candidiasis?. J Dent Res. 1995;74:1152-61.

Giordani R, Trebaux J, Masi M, Regli P. Enhanced antifungal activity of ketoconazole by Euphorbia characias latex against Candida albicans. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;78:1-5.

Terzi V, Morcia C, Faccioli P, Valè G, Tacconi G, Malnati M. In vitro antifungal activity of the tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) essential oil and its major components against plant pathogens, Letters in Applied Microbiology. 2007;44(6)613-8.

Parekh J, Karathia N, Chanda S. Evaluation of antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis of Bauhinia variegata L. bark. Afr J Biomed Res. 2006;9(1):53-6.

Aliero AA, Afolayan AJ. Antimicrobial activity of Solanum tomentosum. African J of Biomed Rese. 2006;5(4):369-72.

Buwa LV, Staden JV. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of traditional medicinal plants used against venereal diseases in South Africa. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;103(1):139-42.

Ergene A, Guler P, Tan S, Mirici S, Hamzaoglu E, Duran A. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Heracleum sphondylium subsp. Artvinense. African J Biomed Res 2006;5(11):1087-9.

Abdelghani SB, Weaver L, Zidan ZH, Hussein MA, Keevil CW, Brown RCD. Microware-assisted synthesis and antimicrobial activities of flavonoid derivatives. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 2008;18:518-22.

Duraipandiyan V, Kannan P, Ignacimuthu S. Antimicrobial activity of Sphaeranthus indicus. Ethnobotanical Leaflets. 2009;13:320-5.

Farahmand S, Rasooli A, Saffarpour M. Antifungal activities of methanolic extract of plants. Electronic Journal of Biology. 2016;S1:42-4.

Romagnoli C, Mares D, Sacchetti G, Bruni A. The photodynamic effect of 5-(4-hydroxy-l-butinyl)-2,2'-bithienyl on dermatophytes. Mycol Res. 1998;102: 1519-24.

Chobot V, Buchta V, Jahodarova H, Pour M, Opletal L, Jahodar L, Harant P. Antifungal activity of a thiophene polyine from Leuzea carthamoides. Fitoterapi.a 2003;74:288-90.

Sur-Altiner D, Gurkan E, Sarioglu I, Tuzlaci E, Ang O. The antibacterial and antifungal effects of Centaurea hermannii. Fitoterapia. 1997;68:374.

Izzati NN, Diniatik D, Rahayu WS. Aktivitas antioksidan ekstrak perasan daun manggis (G. mangostana.) berdasarkan metode DPPH (2.2 Diphenyl-1-phycryl hydrazil). Pharmacy. 2012;9: 111-21.

Ibrahim MY, Hashim NM, Mariod AA, Mohan S, Abdulla MA, Abdelwahab SI, et al. α-Mangostin from G. mangostana Inn: An updated review of its pharmacological properties. Arab J Chem. 2016;9: 317-29.

Narasimhan S, Maheshwaran S, Abu-yousef IA, Majdalawieh AF, Rethavathi J, Das PE, et al. Anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activity of xanthones obtained via semi-synthetic modification of α-mangostin from Garcinia mangostana. Molecules. 2017;22:E275.

Tayel AA, El-Tras WF. Anticandidal activity of pomegranate peel extract aerosol as an applicable sanitizing method. Mycoses. 2010;53(2):117-22.




How to Cite

Sundaresan, P. K., & Kesavan, K. P. (2020). Antifungal activity of ethanolic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. against Dermatophytes and Candida species. International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 9(11), 1646–1649.



Original Research Articles