Suppression of inflammatory mediators by aqueous leaf extract of Crotalaria verrucosa: in vivo and in vitro analysis
Keywords:Anti-inflammatory activity, Crotalaria verrucosa, Paw edema, Ear edema, Protein denaturation, Haemolysis
Background: Crotalaria verrucosa is a traditional plant frequently prescribed by the tribes for its medicinal value against inflammation. The present study was designed to investigate the scientific basis for medicinal value in inflammation by in vivo and in vitro analysis.
Methods: Anti-inflammatory activity of the plant’s leaf was evaluated by two in vivo methods - carrageenan induced rat paw edema and xylene induced mice ear edema. Moreover, in vitro analysis was performed through heat induced hemolysis and heat induced protein denaturation methods.
Results: The inflammation produced by carrageenan and xylene were effectively suppressed by the aqueous leaf extract of C. verrucosa (CVAQ) at 600 mg/kg body weight which was comparable to the standards. In heat induced hemolysis test the extract was able to inhibit the lysis up to 70% at 500 µg/ml whereas in heat induced protein denaturation test it reduces the percentage till 69% at the same concentration.
Conclusions: The findings suggested that CVAQ possess moderate to high anti-inflammatory activity when applied in low to high concentrated doses. However, the study can only conclude from this basic evaluation that the extract needs to be further investigated for identifying the potential compound which contributed to such medicinal value of the plant.
Kumar VS, Navaratnam V. Neem (Azadirachta indica): prehistory to contemporary medicinal uses to humankind. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2013;3(7):505-14.
Nawrin K, Billah MM, Jabed MSU, Roy A, Ahmad AKMR, Islam MN. Antipyretic, Antidiabetic, Thrombolytic and CNS Depressant Potential of Ethanol Extract of Crotalaria verrucosa L. Leaves. Am J Biomed Sci. 2015;198-204.
RameshKannan N, John AA, Natarajan E. Inhibition of Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma by Crotalaria verrucosa L. Leaf in Swiss Albino Mice. Res Rev J Ayurv Sci Yoga Naturoap. 2018;5(2):5-10.
Ahmed ZS, Nowrin T, Hossain MH, Nasrin T, Akter r. Metabolite Profiling of Crotalaria verrucosa Leaf Extract and Evaluation of its Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Potency. Res J Phytochem. 2018;12:60-70.
Sumi FA, Ansari P, Azam S, Nazneen S, Uddin N, Baidya T. In-vitro Investigation of Anti-Coagulation Property of Four Bangladeshi Plants of Crotalaria Species and Analysis of their Qualitative Bioactive Compounds. 2015;7(4):5.
Nawrin K, Billah MM, Jabed MSU, Khalil MI, Uddin MM, Islam MN. Suppression of Inflammatory Mediators by the Ethanol Extract of Crotalaria verrucosa L. leaf - in vivo and in vitro Analysis. Europ J Medic Plant. 2016;1-7.
Tang XC, Lin ZG, Cai W, Chen N, Shen L. Anti-inflammatory effect of 3-acetylaconitine. Acta Pharm Sinica. 1984;5;85-9.
Winter CA, Risley EA, Nuss GW. Carrageenin-induced edema in hind paw of the rat as an assay for antiiflammatory drugs. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1962;111:544-7.
Adeyemi OO, Okpo SO, Ogunti OO. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of leaves of Persea americana mill (lauraceae). Fitoterapia. 2002;73(5):375-80.
Anosike CA, Obidoa O, Ezeanyika LU. Membrane stabilization as a mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of garden egg (Solanum aethiopicum). Daru. 2012;20(1):76.
Carter SJ. Blood and related products. Part 3, Chapter 34, 6th ed. Pitman, London: Cooper and Gunn’s Tutorial Pharmacy; 2000.
Ashok P, Koti BC, Thippeswamy AHM, Tikare VP, Dabadi P, Viswanathaswamy AHM. Evaluation of Antiinflammatory Activity of Centratherum anthelminticum (L) Kuntze Seed. Ind J Pharm Sci. 2010;72(6):697-703.
Zhang J, Wang H, Wang T, Chong Y, Yu P, Lu C, et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of Yanshu spraying agent in animal models. Experiment Therap Medic. 2013;5(1):73-6.
Agbaje EO, Fageyinbo MS. Evaluating Anti-Inflammatory activity of aqueous root extract of Strophanthus hispidus DC. (Apocynaceae). Int J Appl Res Nat Prod. 2012;4(4):7-14.
Sadeghi H, Zarezade V, Sadeghi H, Toori MA, Barmak MJ, Azizi A, et al. Anti-inﬂammatory activity of Stachys pilifera Benth. Iran Red Cresc Medic J. 2014;16(9).
Amann R, Schuligoi R. Inhibition of carrageenan-induced edema by indomethacin or sodium salicylate does not prevent the increase of nerve growth factor in the rat hind paw. Neurosci Lett. 2000;278(3):173-6.
Gamache DA, Ellis EF. Effect of dexamethasone, indomethacin, ibuprofen, and probenecid on carrageenan-induced brain inflammation. J Neurosurg. 1986;65(5):686-92.
Okoye FBC, Osadebe PO, Proksch P, Edrada-Ebel RA, Nworu CS, Esimone CO. Anti-inflammatory and membrane-stabilizing stigmastane steroids from Alchornea floribunda leaves. Planta Med. 2010;76(2):172-7.
Smith J, Das B, Choudhury MD, Dey A, Talukdar AD, Nongalleima K, et al. Antioxidant and anti-Inflammatory activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of rhizome part of Drynaria quercifolia (l.) J Smith Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2014;6(6):43-9.
Anyasor GN, Okanlawon AA, Ogunbiyi B. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Justicia secunda Vahl leaf extract using in vitro and in vivo inflammation models. Clin Phytosci. 2019;5(1):49.
Ahmad F, Khan RA, Rasheed S. Study of Analgesic and AntiInflammatory Activity from Plant Extracts of Lactuca Scariola and Artemisia absinthium. Med J Islamic World Acad Sci. 1992;5(2):111-4.
Insel PA. Analgesic-antipyretics and antiinflammatory agents: Drugs employed in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and gout. In goodman and Gilman’s the pharmacological basis of therapeutics. Edited by Gilman AG, Rall T, Nies A, Taylor P. Pergamon, NY. 1990:638-81.
Ranasinghe P, Ranasinghe P, Abeysekera WPKM, Premakumara GAS, Perera YS, Gurugama P, et al. In vitro erythrocyte membrane stabilization properties of Carica papaya L. leaf extracts. Pharmacogn Res. 2012;4(4):196-202.
Richards DM, Dean RT, Jessup W. Membrane proteins are critical targets in free radical mediated cytolysis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1988;946(2):281-8.