Acute toxicity study of seeds of Achyranthes aspera, bark of Berberis aristata and roots of Coleus forskohlii in Wistar rats

J. Ravi Kumar, V. Prasanna, Chakradhar ., K. C. Haritha


Background: Achyranthes aspera is a species of plant in the family Amaranthaceae. Berberis aristata is a shrub belonging to the family Berberidaceae and the genus Berberis. Plectranthus barbatus is a tropical perennial plant related to the typical coleus species. It produces forskolin, an extract useful for pharmaceutical preparations and research in cell biology. It is belonging to Lamiaceae. The present study has been undertaken to study the toxic effects of hydro alcoholic extracts of A. aspera, B. aristata, C. forskohlii in albino Wistar rats and to establish the hazardous safety category of hydro alcoholic extracts of these plants as per organization for economic cooperation and development (OECD-423) guidelines and GHS classification system respectively.

Methods: In acute toxicity study, the hydro-alcoholic extracts of all the above three plants were given orally at the dose of 2000 mg/kg b. w. to three rats in each group respectively in step I. Then, all the animals were observed for initial 4 hours and followed by fourteen days for their clinical signs and mortality in step II.

Results: In step I, all the animals were normal and there was no mortality after 48 hours. In step II with the same dose, all the animals showed no adverse effects and no mortality when followed up to 14 days observation period.

Conclusions: The result indicates that the hydro alcoholic extracts of A. aspera, B. aristata, C. forskohlii plants can be utilized safely for therapeutic use in pharmaceutical formulations and it falls under category ‘5’ or ‘unclassified’ of GHS system.


Achyranthes aspera, Berberis aristata, Coleus forskohlii, OECD and acute toxicity

Full Text:



Kelly K. History of medicine. New York: Facts on file; 2009: 29-50.

WHO (World Health Organization). The World Traditional Medicines Situation, in Traditional medicines: Global Situation, Issues and Challenges. Geneva. 2011;3:1-14.

Blahi ANM, Zougrou NE, Gnahoue G, Kouakou K. Mechanism of Action of the Aqueous Leaves Extract of Sarcocephaluslatifolius (Smith) on the Reproductive System of Female Rat. J Physiology Pharmacol Advances. 2016;6(12):950-9.

Reinhart KM, Coleman CI, Teevan C, Vachhani P, White CM. Effects of garlic on blood pressure in patients with and without systolic hypertension: a meta-analysis. Ann Pharmacother. 2008;42:1766-71.

Taur DJ, Patil RY. Some medicinal plants with antiasthmatic potential: a current status. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2011;1:413-8.

Agbaire PO, Emudainohwo JOT, Clarke PBO. Phytochemical screening and toxicity studies on the leaves of Manniophytonfulvum. Inter J Plant Ani Environ Sci. 2013;3(1):1-6.

Mazid M, Khan TA, Mohammad F. Medicinal plants of rural India: a review of use by Indian folks. Indo Global J Pharmaceutical Sci. 2012;2(3):286-304.

Aneela S, De S, Kanthal LK, Choudhury NS, Das BL, Sagar KV. Acute oral toxicity studies of Pongamiapinnata and Annonasquamosa on albino wistar rats. Int J Res Pharmacy Chemistry. 2011;1(4):820-4.

Parasuraman S. Toxicological screening. J Pharmacol Pharmacother. 2011;2:74.

Reddy CV, Kamble A. Toxicity study of Achyranthus aspera. Int Letters Natural Sci. 2014;14:85-96.

Mir AH, Sexena M, Malla MY. An acute oral toxicity study of methanolic extract from Tridex procumbens in Sprague Dawley’s Rats as per OECD guidelines 423. Asian J Plant Sci Res. 2013;3(1):16-20.

Sadashiv PS, Krishna AR. Acute toxicity study for Achyranthes aspera leaves. J Pharmacy Res. 2011;4(7):2221-2.

Barua CC, Talukdar A, Begum SA, Pathak DC, Sarma DK, Borah RS. In vivo wound-healing efficacy and antioxidant activity of Achyranthes aspera in experimental burns. Pharmaceutical Biology. 2012;50(7):892-9.

Pareek A, Suthar M. Anti-diabetic activity of extract of Berberis aristata root in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Pharmacology online. 2010;2:179-85.

Joshi PV, Shirkhedkar AA, Prakash K, Maheshwari VL. Anti-diarrheal activity, chemical and toxicity profile of Berberis aristata. Pharm Biol. 2011;49(1):94-100.

Majeed M, Nagabhushanam K, Natarajan S, Sarangbani, Vaidyanathan P, Majeed S, et al. Investigation of Acute, Sub-Acute, Chronic Oral Toxicity and Mutagenicity of Coleus forskohlii Briq. Hydroethanolic Extract, Standardized for 10% Forskolin in Experimental Animals. IJPPR. 2015;5(1):219-38.