Study on drug utilization pattern and cost analysis among the psychiatric patients treated with various benzodiazepine derivatives

Dhivya Govindasamy, Gandhibabu Ramanathan, Talari Venkata Siva Prasad, Gopalakrishnan Ganesan


Background: The objective of the study was to assess drug utilization pattern and cost analysis among the psychiatric patients treated with various benzodiazepine derivatives.

Methods: This observational study was conducted in department of psychiatric, RMMCH, Annamalai University. The study period was 6 months (November 2018 to April 2019). A total of 50 psychiatric patients were included.

Results: A total 50 patients among them 64% (32) males and 36% (18) female, were included in the study. Most of the patient were between the age groups of 18-29 years (30%). The most common clinical condition treated with benzodiazepines were alcohol dependence syndrome/alcohol withdrawal syndrome/ alcohol related psychotic disorder (34%). The majority of patients were prescribed with clonazepam (66.67%). The defined daily dose (DDD) per 100 bed days of benzodiazepines were found to be 0.89. In this study the comparison of cost analysis for the drug used and it was found that lorazepam (122%) are most expensive followed by chlordiazepoxide (93.3%) and clonazepam (78.57%). The cheapest drug was nitrazepam (36.84%).

Conclusions: The majority of the patient admitted in the psychiatric department were suffering from Alcohol depending syndrome/alcohol withdrawal syndrome. The most commonly prescribed benzodiazepine was clonazepam followed by lorazepam and least prescribed diazepam and nitrazepam based on defined daily dose concept.


Drug utilization, Benzodiazepine, DDD, Cost analysis

Full Text:



Anderson LA. Pharm D-Benzodiazepine: overview and use. Available at: Accessed on 21 January 2019.

Truter I. A Review of Drug Utilization Studies and Methodologies. Jordan J Pharmaceutical Sci. 2008;1(2):91-104.

ATC Guidelines. Available at: Accessed on 21 January 2019.

Ahuja J, Gupta M, Gupta AK, Kohli K. Pharmacoeconomics. National Med J India. 2004;17(2):80-3.

Available at: regulation/medicine safety/toolkit-indicators/en/ index1.htmlDDD indicators. Accessed on 21 January 2019.

Jainam SV, Kalyani PN, Shrikalp DS. Pharmacoeconomic Evaluation, Cost Minimization Analysis of Anti-Diabetic Therapy in Gujarat. Int J Med Res Health Sci. 2016;5(3):34-43.

Mateti UV, Prabhakaran P, Sanal TS. Utilization Patterns of Benzodiazepines in Psychiatric Patients in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital. Asia Pac Clin Transl Nerv Syst Dis. 2018;1(4):196-201.

Jayaprakash K. Study of Utilization Pattern of Benzodiazepine's at a Private Corporate Hospital. Int J Res Pharmaceutical Nanosci. 2014;3(4):357-61.

Michele M, Heliyon BT. Pattern of Benzodiazepines use in Primary care Adults with Anxiety Disorders. Available at:

by-nc-nd/4.0/. Accessed on 21 January 2019.

Ramadan WH. Prescription Patterns of Benzodiazepines in the Lebanese Adult Population: A Cross-Sectional Study. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2016;(12):2299-305.

Sachdeva A, Choudhary M, Chandra M. Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: Benzodiazepines and Beyond. J Clin Diagnostic Res. 2015;9(9):1-7.

Lejoyeux M. Benzodiazepine Treatment for Alcohol-Dependent Patients Medical Council on Alcoholism. Alcohol Alcohol. 1998;33(6):563-75.

Thakkar KB, Jain MM, Khobragade AA. A Drug Utilization Study Psychotropic Drug Prescribed in the Psychiatry outpatient Department of a Tertiary Care Hospital. J Clin Diagnostic Res. 2013;7(12);2759-64.

Stimac D, Culig J. outpatient Utilization of psychopharmaceuticals in the city of Zagreb 2001-2006. Psychiatr Danub. 2009;21(1):56-64.