DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20195772

Safety evaluation of chromium picolinate in experimental rats

Harish Kumar V. S., Sindhura Reddy Baleed, Pradeep A. N., Kiran L. J., Shivashankaramurthy K. G., Raghu Prasada M. S.

Abstract


Background: Chromium, an essential trace mineral plays an important role in the metabolism of carbohydrate, fat and proteins. Chromium picolinate (Cr.Pic) is used in alternative medicine to treat chromium deficiency. Though Cr.Pic is increasingly used to treat diabetes and obesity, studies on its safety profile is limited.

Methods: Acute toxicity study was conducted by oral administration of Cr.Pic (2000 mg/kg body weight). The animals were maintained another 14 days with once a day observation. For sub-chronic studies, test groups were treated with Cr.Pic 10 mg/kg/day for 90 days. Tests for hepatic and renal function were conducted. Effect of Cr.Pic on behavioural changes and motor co-ordination was done on every week. Histopathological studies were conducted on day 90 at the end of the experiment.

Results: Acute toxicity study of Cr.Pic showed no signs of toxicity and mortality. Absence of any behavioural alteration or mortality during the period of 14 days indicates that Cr.Pic has no latent effect. Similar results were obtained with sub-chronic studies suggesting safety of Cr.Pic. Cr.Pic treated groups showed no changes in learning and motor co-ordination compared to the untreated group. No gross histopathological changes were seen in any group indicating safety of Cr.Pic.

Conclusions: The present study conferred safety profile of Cr.Pic from normal results obtained in hepatic function, renal function, behavioural and histopathological studies, suggesting its safety.


Keywords


Acute toxicity, Chromium picolinate, Sub-chronic toxicity

Full Text:

PDF

References


Preuss HG, Echard B, Perricone NV, Bagchi D, Yasmin T, Stohs SJ. Comparing metabolic effects of six different commercial trivalent chromium compounds. J Inorganic Biochem. 2008;102(11):1986-90.

Chromium Picolinate Demonstrates Diabetes Benefits. Availabe at: http://www.rejuvenation-science.com/n_chromium-picolinate_diabetes2.html. Accessed on 24 October 2017.

Pittler MH, Stevinson C, Ernst E. Chromium picolinate for reducing body weight: Meta-analysis of randomized trials. Int J Obesity. 2003;27:522-9.

Mertz W. Chromium in human nutrition: a review. J Nutr. 1993;123:626-33.

Anderson RA. Chromium, glucose tolerance, diabetes. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1992;32:19-24.

Jeejeebhoy KN, Chu RC, Marliss EB, Greenberg GR, Bruce-Robertson A. Chromium deficiency, glucose intolerance, and neuropathy reversed by chromium supplementation, in a patient receiving long-term total parenteral nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr. 1977;30:531-8.

Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, Polansky MM, Cheng N, Chi J, Feng J. Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 1997;46(11):1786-91.

Mozaffari MS, AbdelSayed R, Liu JY, Wimborne H, El-Remessy A, El-Marakby A. Effects of chromium picolinate on glycemic control and kidney of the obese Zucker rat. Nutrit Metab. 2009;6(1):51.

Martin J, Wang ZQ, Zhang XH, Wachtel D, Volaufova J, Matthews DE, et al. Chromium picolinate supplementation attenuates body weight gain and increases insulin sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diab Care. 2006;29(8):1826-32.

Sclafani A. Dietary obesity. In: Stunkard AJ, Wadden TA, editors. Obesity: theory and therapy. New York: Raven Press; 1993; 125-136.

Warwick ZS, Schiffman SS. Role of dietary fat in caloric intake and weight gain. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1992;16:585-96.

Halim1 SZ, Abdullah NR, Afzan, Rashid A, Jantan, Ismail. J Med Plants Res. 2011;5:1867-72.

Kumar S, Alagawadi KR, Rao MR. Effect of Argyreia speciosa root extract on cafeteria diet-induced obesity in rats. Ind J Pharmacol. 2011;43(2):163.

Harish Kumar VS, Vinutha MB, Pradeep AN, Sathisha Aithal SR, Umakant NP. Bromocriptine, a Dopamine (d2) Receptor Agonist, Used Alone and in Combination with Glipizide in Sub–Therapeutic Doses to Ameliorate Hyperglycaemia. J Clin Diag Res: JCDR. 2013;7(9):1904.

Jarvik ME. Techniques for evaluating the effects of drugs on memory. In: Animal and Clinical Pharmacological Techniques in Drug Evaluation. Eds. Nodine, J.H. and Seigler, P.E., Year Book Medical Publishers Inc. Chicago. 1964: 339-347.

Robert KS, Lim MB. Animal Techniques for evaluating Hypnotics. Animal and Clinical Pharmacological Techniques in Drug Evaluation. Eds. Nodine JH and Seigler PE. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers Inc; 1964: 291-297.

Jacobsen E. Tranquillisers and Sedatives. IN Evaluation of Drugs Activities: Pharmacometrics. Eds. Laurance DR, Bacharach. A.L, London: Academic Press; 1964, 1:215-237.

Bancroft JD, Cook HC. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, Manual of Histological Techniques. 1984: 201-202.

Ashafa AO, Orekoya LO, Yakubu MT. Toxicity profile of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark in male Wistar rats. Asian Pacific J Trop Biomed. 2012;2(10):811-7.

Joseph JA, Bartus RT, Clody D, Morgan D, Finch C, Beer B, Sesack S. Psychomotor performance in the senescent rodent: reduction of deficits via striatal dopamine receptor up-regulation. Neurobiol Aging 1983;4(4):313-9.

Luine VN, Richards ST, Wu VY, Beck KD. Estradiol enhances learning and memory in a spatial memory task and effects levels of monoaminergic neurotransmitters. Horm Behav. 1998;34(2):149-62.

Sakuntala Devi PR, Adilaxmamma K, Rao GS, Raj MA. Safety evaluation of alcoholic extract of Boswellia ovalifoliolata stem-bark in rats. Toxicol Int. 2012;19:115-20.

Okokon JE, Nwafor PA, Ekpo MD. Subchronic toxicity studies of the ethanolic root extract of Croton zambesicus. Pakistan J Pharma Sci. 2010;23(2).

Dawane JS, Borole KD, Pandit VA, Dhrubajyoti D, Sahane SS. Karandikar MN Evaluation of Nephro. Hepato and Gastro toxic potential of aqueous extract of Dashamula. Int J Res Pharm Biomed Sci. 2012;3:13-9.

Kumar A, Kumari SN, D'Souza P, Bhargavan D. Evaluation of renal protective activity of Adhatoda zeylanica (medic) leaves extract in wistar rats. Nitte Uni J Health Sci. 2013;3(4):45.