DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20161545

Evidence for the involvement of the monoaminergic system in the antidepressant-like activity of methanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri in albino mice

Shweta Oommen, Raj Vishnu

Abstract


Background: Depression is a common illness worldwide, with an estimated 121 million people affected. The efficacy of currently available drugs for treating depression often lack consistency and many of them exert undesirable side effects. This emphasises on the need for newer drugs for the treatment of major depression.

Methods: The present study evaluated the antidepressant-like activity of methanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri in mouse forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST), which are predictive models of antidepressant activity. An attempt was also made to understand the involvement of the monoaminergic system and the opioid system in Bacopas’ antidepressant activity. Albino mice were treated with vehicle, fluoxetine (20 mg/kg), or Bacopa monnieri (20, 40, 80, and 120 mg/kg) orally and evaluated in FST and TST. The actophotometer performance was also examined after different treatments. For understanding the mechanisms, different receptor antagonists were used.

Results: Bacopa monnieri produced a significant reduction in the duration of immobility, with better activity at 80 mg/kg dose. Furthermore, the antidepressant-like action produced by Bacopa monnieri was abolished by the pre-treatment of mice with p-chlorophenylalanine (100 mg/kg, i.p., a serotonin synthesis inhibitor), pindolol (10 mg/kg, i.p., a β-adrenoceptor blocker/5HT1A/1B receptor antagonist, ketanserin (5 mg/kg, i.p., a 5HT2A/2B receptor antagonist), prazosin (1 mg/kg, i.p., an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist), and yohimbine (1 mg/kg, i.p., an α2-adrenoceptor antagonist), but not with ondansetron (1 mg/kg, i.p., a 5HT3 receptor antagonist) and naloxone (1 mg/kg, i.p., an opioid receptor antagonist).

Conclusions: These findings suggest that the antidepressant-like effect produced by Bacopa monnieri may be mediated through an interaction with the serotonergic and noradrenergic nervous system. The antidepressant doses of Bacopa monnieri had no effect on the locomotor activity of mice.


Keywords


Antidepressant-like effect, Bacopa monnieri, Mice, Noradrenergic, Serotonin, Tail suspension test

Full Text:

PDF

References


Reddy MS. Depression: the disorder and the brain. Indian J Psychol Med. 2010;32:1-2.

Lisa L, Moltke V, Greenblatt DJ. Medication dependence and anxiety. Dialogues in neurosciences. 2003;5:237-45.

Capra JC, Cunha MP, Msachado DG, Zomkowski AD, Mendes BG, Santos AR, et al. Antidepressant-like effect of scopoletin, a coumarin isolated from Polygala sabulosa (Polygalaceae) in mice: evidence for the involvement of monoaminergic systems. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;643:232-8.

Girish C, Raj V, Arya J, Balakrishnan S. Evidence for the involvement of the monoaminergic system, but not the opioid system in the antidepressant-like activity of ellagic acid in mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2012;682:118-25.

Russo A, Borrelli F. Bacopa monnieri, a reputed nootropic plant: An overview. Phytomed. 2005;12:305-17.

Sumathy T, Subramanian S, Govindasamy S, Balakrishna K, Veluchamy G. Protective effect of Bacopa monnierion morphine induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Phytother Res. 2001;15:643-5.

Channa S, Dar A, Yaqoob S, Yaqoob M, Atta-Ur-Rahman. Anti-inflammatory activity of Bacopa monnieri in rodents. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;104:286-9.

Rao CV, Sairam K, Goel RK. Experimental evaluation of Bocopa monnierion rat gastric ulceration and secretion. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2000;44:435-41.

Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya A, Kumar A, Ghosal S. Antioxidant activity of Bacopa monnieriin rat frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus. Phytother Res. 2000;14:174-9.

Kaster MP, Raupp I, Binfare RW, Andreatini R, Rodrigues AL. Antidepressant- like effect of lamotrigine in the mouse forced swimming test: evidence for the involvement of the noradrenergic system. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;56:119-24.

D’Aquila PS, Collu M, Gessa GL, Serra G. The role of dopamine in the mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000;405:365-73.

Anguelova M, Benkelfat C, Turecki G. A systematic review of association studies investigating genes coding for serotonin receptors and the serotonin transporter: I. Affective disorders. Mol Psychiatry. 2003;8:574-91.

Anguelova M, Benkelfat C, Turecki G. A systematic review of association studies investigating genes coding for serotonin receptors and the serotonin transporter: II. Suicidal behavior. Mol Psychiatry. 2003;8:646-53.

Drevets WC. Neuroimaging and neuropathological studies of depression: implications for the cognitive-emotional features of mood disorders. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2001;11:240-9.

Schreiber R, Brocco M, Audinot V, Gobert A, Veiga S, Millan MJ. (1-(2, 5-dimethoxy-4- iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane)-induced head twitches in the rat are mediated by 5- hydroxytryptamine 5-HT2A receptors: modulation by novel 5-HT2A/2C antagonists, D1 antagonists and 5-HT1A agonists. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1995;273:101-12.

Brocardo PS, Budni J, Lobato KR, Santos AR, Rodrigues AL. Evidence for the involvement of the opioid system in the antidepressant-like effect of folic acid in the mouse forced swimming test. Behav Brain Res. 2009;200:122-7.

Chatterjee M, Verma P, Palit G. Comparative evaluation of Bacopa monniera and Panax quniquefolium in experimental anxiety and depressive models in mice. Indian J Exp Biol. 2010;8:306-13.

Wang R, Xu Y, Wu HL, Li YB, Li YH, Guo JB et. al. The antidepressant effects of curcumin in the forced swimming test involve 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptors. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;578:43-50.

Yang CS, Tzou BC, Liu YP, Tsai MJ, Shyue SK, Tzeng SF. Inhibition of cadmium-induced oxidative injury in rat primary astrocytes by the addition of antioxidants and the reduction of intracellular calcium. J Cell Biochem. 2008;103:825-34.

Bruning CA, Souza AC, Gai BM, Zeni G, Nogueira CW. Antidepressant-like effect of m-trifluoromethyl-diphenyl diselenide in the mouse forced swimming test involves opioid and serotonergic systems. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011b;658:145-9.

Steru L, Chermat R, Thierry B. The tail suspension test: a new method for screening antidepressants in mice. Psychopharmacology. 1985;85:367-70.

Porsolt RD, Bertin A, Jalfre M. Behavioral despair in mice: a primary screening test for antidepressants. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther. 1977;229:327-36.

Boissier JR, Simon P. Action of caffeine on the spontaneous motility of the mouse. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther.1965;158:212-21.

Devadoss T, Pandey DK, Mahesh R, Yadav SK. Effect of acute and chronic treatment with QCF-3 (4-benzylpiperazin-1-yl) (quinoxalin-2-yl) methanone, a novel 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist, in animal models of depression. Pharmacol Rep. 2010;62:245-57.

Dias ZA, Oscar RA, Lin J, Santos AR, Calixto JB, Lúcia Severo Rodrigues A. Evidence for serotonin receptor subtypes involvement in agmatine antidepressant-like effect in the mouse forced swimming test. Brain Res. 2004;1023:253-63.

Guilloux JP, David DJ, Guiard BP, Chenu F, Repérant C, Toth M, et al. Blockade of 5-HT1A receptors by (+/−) - pindolol potentiates cortical 5-HT outflow, but not antidepressant-like activity of paroxetine: microdialysis and behavioral approaches in 5-HT1A receptor knockout mice. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006;31:2162-72.

Jesse CR, Wilhelm EA, Bortolatto CF, Nogueira CW. Evidence for the involvement of the noradrenergic system, dopaminergic and imidazoline receptors in the antidepressant-like effect of tramadol in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2010;95:344-50.

Redrobe JP, Bourin M. Partial role of 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors in the activity of antidepressants in the mouse forced swimming test. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997;325:129-35.

Yalcin I, Aksu F, Belzung C. Effects of desipramine and tramadol in a chronic mild stress model in mice are altered by yohimbine but not by pindolol. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005;514:165-74.

Sairam K, Rao CV, Babu MD, Goel RK. Prophylactive and curative effects of Bacopa monniera in gastric ulcer models. Phytomedicine. 2001;8:423-30.

Citó MCO, Silva MIG, Santos LK, , Fernandes ML, Melo FH, Aguiar JA, et al. Antidepressant-like effect of Hoodia gordonii in a forced swimming test in mice: evidence for involvement of the monoaminergic system. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2015;48:57-66.

Singh HK, Dhawan BN. Neuro psycho pharmacological effects of the Ayurvedic nootropic Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi). Indian J Pharmacol. 1997;29:359-65.

Rastogi RP, Pal R, Kulshreshtha DK. Bacoside [A.sub.3]-a triterpinoid saponin from Bacopa monniera. Phytochemistry. 1994;36:133-7.

Bhattacharya SK, Ghosal S. Anxiolytic activity of a standardized extract of Bacopa monniera: an experimental study. Phytomed. 1998;5:77-82.

Bhattacharya SK, Kumar A, Ghosal S. Effect of Bacopa monniera on animal models of Alzheimer's disease and perturbed central cholinergic markers of cognition in rats. Res Com Pharmacol Toxicol. 1999;4:1-12.

Elhwuegi AS. Central monoamines and their role in major depression. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2004;28:435-51.

Millan MJ. The role of monoamines in the actions of established and ‘‘novel’’ antidepressant agents: a critical review. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004;500:371-84.

Eckeli AL, Dach F, Rodrigues AL. Acute treatment with GMP produce antidepressant-like effects in mice. Neuroreport. 2000;11:1839-43.

Kennedy SE, Koeppe RA, Young EA, Zubieta JK. Dysregulation of endogenous opioid emotion regulation circuitry in major depression in women. Arch Gen Psychiat. 2006;63:1199-208.

Russo A, Borrelli F, Campisi A, Acquaviva R, Raciti G, Vanella A. Nitric oxide-related toxicity in cultured astrocytes: effect of Bacopa monnieri. Life Sci. 2003;73:1517-26.

Dhanasekaran M, Tharakan B, Holcomb LA, Hitt AR, Young KA, Manyam BV. Neuroprotective mechanisms of ayurvedic antidementia botanical Bacopa monnieri. Phytother Res. 2007;21:965-9.

Saraf MK, Prabhakar S, Anand A. Neuroprotective effect of Bacopa monnieri on ischemia induced brain injury. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2010;97:192-7.

Das A, Shanker G, Nath C, Pal R, Singh S, Singh H. A comparative study in rodents of standardized extracts of Bacopa monniera and Ginkgo biloba: Anticholinesterase and cognitive enhancing activities. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2002;73:893-900.

Banerjee R, Hazra S, Kumar GA, Mondal AC. Chronic administration of Bacopa Monniera increases BDNF protein and mRNA expressions: A study in chronic unpredictable stress induced animal model of depression. Psychiatry Investig. 2014;11:297-306.