Published: 2019-11-25

Neurotransmitters and neuromodulators involved in learning and memory

Laxminarayana Kurady Bairy, Suresh Kumar


Learning and memory being highly specialized process of human brain involves complex interaction between neurotransmitters and cellular events. Over the years, the understandings of these processes have been evolving from psychological, neurophysiological, and pharmacological perspectives. The most widely appraised model of learning and memory involves attention, acquisition, storage and retrieval. Each of these events involve interplay of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, acetylcholine, norepinephrine, N-methyl-d-aspartic acid, gamma-aminobutyric acid, though preponderance of specific neurotransmitter have been documented. The formation of long-term memory involves cellular events with neuroplasticity. Further, dopamine is documented to play crucial role in the process of forgetting. Understanding of the processes of learning and memory not only facilitates drug discovery, but also helps to understand actions of several existing drugs. In addition, it would also help to enhance psychological interventions in children with learning disabilities. Thus, the review intends to summarize role of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators during different phases of learning and memory.


Learning, Memory, Attention, Neurotransmitters, Neuromodulators

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