DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20194127

Evaluation of dose dependent analgesic response by extracts of Myristica fragrans on albino wistar rats: an experimental study

Imran Zaheer, Syed Ziaur Rahman, Rahat Ali Khan, Mehtab Parveen, Priyamvada Sharma

Abstract


Background: The objective of the study was to evaluate analgesic activity of ethanolic extract, methanol and benzene fraction of Myristica fragrans on wistar albino rats.

Methods: The present study was carried out in the department of pharmacology JNMC AMU and F.H. Medical College, Agra. The analgesic activity was evaluated by employing the Eddy’s hot plate method and tail flick response method. In both the tests, Rats of either sex weighing 150-200 g were used. The total number of animals n=36 were allocated to six groups. Each group consist of six animals each. The response noted in animals that were tested by hot plate method was reaction time for licking/biting of both the paws before and after administration of control & test drugs. However in Tail flick test, the pain threshold response was recorded before and after administration of control & test drugs. The statistical analysis was done by using one-way ANOVA. The data is expressed as Mean±SEM. P<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.

Results: Ethanolic extracts and methanol fraction of M. fragrans showed statistically significant (p<0.001) increase in reaction time for licking/biting in hot plate method. On the contrary a significant increase in pain threshold was also recorded in tail flick response test. It is interesting to note that no significant degree of analgesia related to any dose of benzene fraction was observed.

Conclusions: The present study reveals the dose dependent significant analgesic activity of the extracts of M. fragrans i.e. ethanolic extracts and methanol fraction in both the test. However, the degree of analgesia was recorded significantly higher in groups received higher doses of extracts of M. fragrans.


Keywords


Analgesic activity, Myristica fragrans, Albino wistar rats

Full Text:

PDF

References


Theophile D, Laurel NE, Benoit NT, Anatole AG, Emmanuel AA, Paul TV, et al. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the ethyl acetate stem bark extract of Bridelia scleroneur. Inflammopharmacology. 2006;14:42–7.

Burke A, Smyth EM, Fitzgerald GA. Analgesic –antipyretic agents; Pharmacotherapy of gout. In: Brunton LL, Lazo JS, Parker KL, editors. Goodman and Gilman’s the pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 11th ed. New York: Mmcgraw-Hill; 2006: 671-716.

Pilotto A, Franceschi M, Leandro G. The risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in elderly users of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: the role of gastroprotective drugs. Aging Clin. Exp. Res. 2003;15:494–49.

Raza M,Shaheen F, Choudhary MI, Sombati S, Rafiq A, Suria A, Atta-ur-Rahman& De-Lorenzo RJ. Anticonvulsant activities of ethanolic extract and aqueous fraction isolated from Delphinium denudatum. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;78:73-8.

Bellakhdar J, La pharmacopée Marocain Traditionnelle. Médecin Arabe Ancienne et Savoirs Populaires. Ibis Pres, Paris, 1997.

Phulsagar S,Dundi M, Bhagwat S, Girigaon Y. An Inside Review of Myristica fragrans Houtt. A Potential Medicinal Plant of India. 2014;1:500-13.

Joyce OO, Chinwe ND, Tabot PD, Bruno CC, JppKwaku. The analgesic effect of ethanolic extract of Myristica fragrans Houtt (nutmeg) on mice. Am J Pharm Tech Res. 2012;2:265-70.

OECD Guidelines for testing of chemicals. Acute Oral Toxicity- Up and Down Procedure. Adopted: 17th December 2001. http://www.oecd.org/chemical safety/risk-assessment/1948378.pdf. Accessed 15 July 2014.

Saxena R, Patil P. Phytochemical Studies on Myristica fragrance Essential Oil. Biological Forum: An Int J. 2012;4:62-4.

Janssen J, Lackman G. Nutmeg oil: identification and quantification of its most active constituents as inhibitors of platelet aggregation. J Ethnopharmacol. 1990;29:179-88.

Chirathaworn C, Kongcharoensuntorn W, Dechdoungchan T, Lowanitchapat A, Sanguanmoo P, Poovorawan Y. Myristica fragrans Houtt. methanolic extract induces apoptosis in a human leukemia cell line through SIRT1 mRNA downregulation. J Med Assoc Thai. 2007;90:2422-8.

Al-Shammary Hayfaa A, Malik AA, Al-Saadi S, Awatif MA. Evaluation of analgesic activity and toxicity of alkaloids in Myristica fragran s seeds in mice. J Pain Res. 2013;6:611–5.

Sarkar A. Herbal Toxicology. New Delhi: Discovery Publishing House Private Limited, 2009.

Mukherjee A, Chaliha M, Das S. Study of analgesic activity of ethanol extracts of Phlogacanthusthyrsiforus on experimental animal models. Bangladesh J Pharmacol. 2009;4:147–9.

Lopes L, Pereira S, Silva L, Figueiredo K, Moura B, Almeida F, Sousa F. Antinociceptive effect of topiramate in models of acute pain and diabetic neuropathy in rodents. Life Sci. 2009;84:105–10.