Evaluation of eye prescriptions for appropriateness and rationality in indoor patients: an observational prospective study


  • Andrew Mark Department of Pharmacology, Dr. M.K. Shah Medical College and Research centre, Ahmedabad, India
  • Sagun Desai Department of Pharmacology, SBKS Medical Institute and Research Centre, Waghodia, Gujarat, India




Drug utilization study, Ophthalmology, Rational


Background: In the branch of ophthalmology, there have been many developments of new ocular therapeutic agents. Indiscriminate use of topical drugs can lead to various unwanted effects. In order to improve drugs therapeutic efficacy, minimize adverse effects, and delay development of resistance, drug utilization trends and patterns need to be evaluated periodically. The objective of the study was to evaluate drug utilization pattern, appropriateness of use and rationality in indoor patients attending ophthalmology department.

Methods: A prospective, observational study was conducted over a period of 15 months in the Ophthalmology Department of Tertiary care teaching Hospital after obtaining permission from IEC. Information of patients collected included age, sex, duration of stay, diagnosis, income per capita per month, information about drugs given- their dose, frequency, route and duration were recorded from the day of admission till discharge.

Results: A total of 150 patients were enrolled in the study with M:F was 1.43:1. Mean hospitalization was 3.00±1.17 days. Most common disease were cataract (108, 72%) followed by pterygium (15, 10%). Mean of 16.35±4.25 medicines were prescribed. On most occasions (2274, 92.70%) the medicines were prescribed using brand names. Injection gentamicin 147 (98%) and flurbiprofen eye drops 145 (96.67%) were the most common drugs used. Majority (83.20%) of medicines were rational. Out of 125 medicines, 35 (28%) were FDC and 90 (72%) were single ingredient. All 100% medicine uses were appropriate with respect to dosage form, route of administration, dosage, frequency of administration and duration of therapy.

Conclusions: Polypharmacy is common practice in eye department which increases inappropriateness and irrational use.


The selection of essential drugs: report of a WHO expert committee. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser. 1977;(615):1-36.

Sachdeva P D, Patel B G. Drug Utilization Studies- Scope And Future Perspectives. Int J Pharma Biological Res. 2010;1(1):11-7.

Jaanus SD. Ocular effects associated with medications. Available at: trade.transitions.com/ direct/10169. Accessed on 28 September 2012.

World Health Organization. WHO model list of essential medicines. Available at: http://apps.who. int/iris/bitstream/10665/93142/1/EML_18_eng.pdf?ua=1. Accessed on 18 August 2014.

Gangwar A, Singh R, Singh S, Sharma BD. Pharmacoepidemiology of drugs utilized in ophthalmic outpatient and inpatient department of a tertiary care hospital. J Applied Pharma Sci. 2011;1(9):135-140.

Prajwal P, Rai M, Gopalakrishna HN, Kateel R. An Exploratory Study on the Drug Utilization Pattern in Glaucoma patients at a Tertiary Care Hospital. J Applied Pharma Sci. 2013;3(10):151-5.

Maniyar Y, Bhixavatimath P, Akkone V. A drug utilization study in the ophthalmology department of a Medical College, Karnataka, India. J Clin Diagnos Res. 2011;5(1):82-4.

Jadhav PR, Moghe VV, Deshmukh YA. Drug Utilization Study in Ophthalmology Outpatients at a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital. ISRN Pharmacology. 2013.

Jain VK, Shrivastava B, Agarwal M. Drug utilization pattern of drugs used along ophthalmic antiallergics formulations used in patients diagnosed with seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis. AJPSR. 2011;1(5):15-20.

Ahmed QS, Sayedda K, Agarwal A, Ansari NA. Drug utilization study of antiglaucoma drugs in a tertiary care teaching hospital, Bareilly. World J Pharm Res. 2014;3(2):2420-8.

Chakraborty P, Chakraborty L, Karmakar K, Kapila S. Taxation and Gender Equity: A Comparative Analysis of Direct and Indirect taxes in developing and developed countries. London and New York: Routledge; 2010: 107-117.

Rambhade S, Chakarborty AN. A Survey on Polypharmacy and Use of Inappropriate Medications. Toxicol Int. 2013;19(1):68-73.




How to Cite

Mark, A., & Desai, S. (2019). Evaluation of eye prescriptions for appropriateness and rationality in indoor patients: an observational prospective study. International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 8(9), 2054–2059. https://doi.org/10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20194115



Original Research Articles