DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20161529

Evaluation of the efficacy of Brahmi ghrita in scopolamine induced amnesia in rats using Cook’s pole apparatus

Renuka Munshi, Supriya Bhalerao, Tanuja Nesari

Abstract


Background: Memory is the process, in which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved. Age, overstress, emotions can result in an impairment of memory. This may also be a symptom of various neuro-degenerative disorders. The objective of this study was carried out to evaluate the effect of pre-treatment of Brahmi ghrita on scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats using cook’s pole apparatus.

Methods: Following Institutional Animal Ethics Committee permission, the study was conducted in Wistar rats (150-225 gms) of either sex. Brahmi ghrita (450 mg/kg) was administered for 15 days as a pre-treatment. Scopolamine (30 mg/kg bw, i.p.) was injected on day 16 and the effect of Brahmi ghrita was studied using Cook’s pole apparatus. Parameters assessed were number of conditional avoidance responses (CAR), unconditional responses and no response out of 30 sessions, serum MDA, and brain MDA and brain acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity. Piracetam, a known nootropic was used as a positive control.

Results: Scopolamine as expected showed a decrease in CAR as compared to normal control after 4 hours and, after 24 hours. Brahmi ghrita significantly improved the conditioned avoidance response (CAR), at both 4 and 24 hours, demonstrating its memory protective effect. Piracetam also showed decrease in CAR. Brahmi ghrita improved the serum and brain MDA levels significantly as compared to the Scopolamine. However Piracetam further augmented the oxidative stress induced by scopolamine. Brahmi ghrita also decreased the AChE activity (increased by scopolamine administration) emphasizing its memory protective effect. Piracetam was seen to increase the AChE activity.

Conclusions: Thus, the study demonstrated the efficacy of Brahmi ghrita as an anti-amnestic, anti-oxidant and AChE inhibitor.


Keywords


Brahmi ghrita, scopolamine-induced amnesia, Cook’s pole apparatus, CAR, MDA, AChE

Full Text:

PDF

References


Simple definition of memory. Available at http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/memory Accessed 28 January 2016.

Joshi H, Parle M. Evaluation of nootropic potential of ocimum sanctum Linn. In mice. Indian J Exp Biol. 2006;44:133-6.

Achliya GS, Wadodkar SG, Dorle AK, Evaluation of CNS activity of bramhi ghrita. Indian J Pharmacol. 2005;37(1):33-6.

Vd. Jadavji Trikamji Acharya, 10th chapter. In Chikitsa Sthan, Charaka Samhita. 5th ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Surbharti Prakashan; 2001:475-476.

Vinutha B, Prashantha D, Salma K. Screening of selected Indian medicinal plants for acetyl cholinesterase activity. J Ethnopharmac. 2007;109(2):359-63.

Chittaranjan A, Chandra SJ. Anti-amnestic property of brahmi and mandookparni in a rat model. Indian J Phychiatry. 2006;48:232-7.

Chopra RN, Nayar SL, Chopra IC. Glossary of Indian medicinal plants. Council of Scientific and Industry Research, New Delhi; 1956:32:74.

Uphof JC. The dictionary of economic plants. Verlag von J Cramer, NewYork; 1968:62:94.

Sreemantula S, Nammi S, Kolanukonda R, Koppula S, Boini KM. Adaptogenic and nootropic activities of aqueous extract of vitis vinifera (grape seed): an experimental study in rat model. BMC Complementary and alternative medicine. 2005;5(1):1472-80.

Indian herbal pharmacopoeia. Regional research laboratory, Jammu-Tawi and Indian drug manufacturer’s association, Mumbai; 2002.

Quality control methods for medicinal plant materials. World health organization, Geneva; 1998.

Ambikadattashastri, editor. Baishjyaratnavali. Apasmarchikitsa. 14th ed. Published by Chaukhabha Sanskrit Sansthana; 2001:372.

Naveen K, Kohli K. Effect of metoclopramide on scopolamine-induced working memory impairment in rats; Indian J Pharmacol. 2003;35:104-8.

Buege JA, Aust SD. Microsomal lipid peroxidation. Methods in Enzymology. 1978;52:302-10.

Ellman GL, Courtney KD, Andres V, Stone RM. A new and rapid colorimetric determination of acetyl cholinesterase activity. Biochem Pharmacol. 1961;7:88-95.

Srikumar BN, Ramkumar K, Raju TR, Rao BS. Assay of acetylcholiesterase activity in the brain. Brain and Behavior. 2004:142-4.

Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ. J. Biol Chem. 1951;193:265.

Wilson K, Walker J. Practical biochemistry: principles and techniques. Cambridge University Press; 2000.

Bayani U, Singh AV, Zamboni P, Mahajan RT. Oxidative stress and neurodegenerative diseases: a review of upstream and downstream antioxidant therapeutic options. Current Neuropharmacology. 2009;7:65-74.

Romero FJ, Morell FB, Romero MJ, Jareflo EJ, Romero B, Marin N, et al. Lipid peroxidation products and antioxidants in human disease. Environmental Health Perspectives. 1998;106(5):1229-34.

Sudha S, Lakshmana MK, Pradhan N. Changes in learning and memory, acetylcholinesterase activity and monoamines in brain after chronic carbamazepine administration in rats. Epilepsia. 1995;36(4):416-22.