Evaluation of nephroprotective activity of Tinospora cordifolia against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats: an experimental study

Monica Sharma, Jyoti Pundir, Pinki Vishwakarma, Raj Kumar Goel, Manish Saini, K. K. Saxena


Background: Gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity is a major contributor to Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) resulting from free radicals induced oxidative stress. Tinospora cordifolia is an Indian medicinal plant, widely used because of its antioxidant activity. Due to limited scientific literature exploring its nephroprotective potential, the present study was designed to investigate the nephroprotective effect of aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats.

Methods: The study was commenced following approval from Institutional Animal Ethical Committee of L.L.R.M. Medical College, Meerut (UP). Twenty four rats were randomised into four groups of six animals each. Total duration of study was 21 days. Group I received normal saline p.o., group II received normal saline along with gentamicin on last 5 days, group III and IV received Tinospora cordifolia in graded doses p.o. along with gentamicin on last 5 days. Injection gentamicin (40mg/kg) i.p. was given once daily for last 5 days to induce nephrotoxicity in rats of groups II, III and IV. The rats were sacrificed under anaesthesia, blood samples analysed for blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine levels and histopathological changes were studied. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA followed by post hoc test.

Results: Tinospora cordifolia pre-treated groups exhibited significant (p<0.001) limitation in rise in levels of BUN and serum creatinine in a dose dependent manner. Histolopathological observations further corroborated the biochemical findings.

Conclusions: The present study concluded that aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia possesses nephroprotective potential against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity.


Gentamicin, Nephroprotective, Nephrotoxicity, Tinospora cordifolia

Full Text:



Mendonça A, Vincent JL, Suter PM, Moreno R, Dearden NM, Antonelli M, et al. Acute renal failure in the ICU: risk factors and outcome evaluated by the SOFA score. Intensive Care Med. 2000;26(7):915-21.

Nash K, Hafeez A, Hou S. Hospital-acquired renal insufficiency. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002;39(5):930-36.

Case J, Khan S, Khalid R, Khan A. Epidemiology of acute kidney injury in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Res Pract. 2013;2013:479730.

Kaufman J, Dhakal M, Patel B, Hamburger R. Community-acquired acute renal failure. Am J Kidney Dis. 1991;17(2):191-98.

Kohli HS, Bhaskaran MC, Muthukumar T, Thennarasu K, Sud K, Jha V et al. Treatment-related acute renal failure in the elderly: a hospital-based prospective study. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2000;15(2):212-17.

Dhanarajan R, Abraham P, Issac B. Protective effect of ebselen, a selenoorganic drug, against gentamicin-induced renal damage in rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2006;99(3):267-72.

Sundin DP, Meyer C, Dahl R, Geerdes A, Sandoval R, Molitoris BA. Cellular mechanism of aminoglycoside tolerance in long-term gentamicin treatment. Am J Physiol. 1997;4(1):1309-18.

Singh SS, Pandey SC, Srivastava S, Gupta VS, Patro B, Ghosh AC. Chemistry and medicinal properties of Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi). Indian J Pharmacol. 2003;35(2):83-91.

Talib VH. A handbook of medical laboratory technology. 2nd Ed. New Delhi: CBS Publishers and Distributers; 2007:155-67.

Finn W, Porter G. Urinary biomarkers and nephrotoxicity. Clinical Nephrotoxins. 2nd ed. Massachusetts: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2003:621-55.

Galley HF. Can acute renal failure be prevented? J R Coll Surg Edinb. 2000;45(1):44-50.

Perazella MA. Drug-induced nephropathy: an update. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2005;4(4):689-06.

Mingeot-Leclercq MP, Tulkens PM. Aminoglycosides: Nephrotoxicity. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999;43(5):1003-12.

Banday AA, Farooq N, Priyamvada S, Yusufi AN, Khan F. Time dependent effects of gentamicin on the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, brush border membrane and oxidative stress in rat kidney tissues. Life Sci. 2008;82(9-10):450-9.

Naughton CA. Drug induced nephrotoxicity. Am Fam Physician. 2008;78(6):743-50.

Karahan I, Atessahin A, Yilmaz S, Ceribasi AO, Sakin F. Protective effect of lycopene on gentamicin-induced oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity in rats. Toxicol. 2005;215(3):198-04.

Soliman KM, Abdul-Hamid M, Othman AI. Effect of carnosine on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Med Sci Monit. 2007;13(3):73-83.

Kore KJ, Shete RV, Jadhav PJ. RP-HPLC method of simultaneous nephroprotective role of A. marmelos extract. IJRPC. 2011;1(3):617-23.

Devi PS, Shyamala DC. Protective effect of quercetin in cisplatin induced cell injury in the rat kidney. Indian J Pharmacol. 1999;31(6):422-6.

Arunkumar PA, Viswanatha GL, Radheshyam N, Mukund H, Belliyappa MS. Science behind cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in humans: A clinical study. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012;2(8):640-4.

Neeraj KG, Sharad M, Tejram S, Abhinav M, Suresh PV, Rajeev KT. Evaluation of anti-apoptotic activity of different dietary antioxidants in renal cell carcinoma against hydrogen peroxide. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2011;2(8):57-63.

Ali BH, Al-Wabel N, Mahmoud O, Mousa HM, Hashad M. Curcumin has a palliative action on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Fund Clin Pharmacol. 2005;19(4):473-7.

Maldonado PD, Barrera D, Medina-Campos ON, Hernandez-Pando R, Ibarra-Rubio ME, Pedraza-Chaverri J. Aged garlic extract attenuates gentamicin induced renal damage and oxidative stress in rats. Life Sci. 2003;73(20):2543-56.

Sener G, Sehirli AO, Altunbas HZ, Ersoy Y, Paskaloglu K, Arbak S, et al. Melatonin protects against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. J Pineal Re. 2002;32(4):231-6.

Erdem A, Gundogan NU, Usubutun A, Kilinc K, Erdem SR, Kara A, et al. The protective effect of taurine against gentamicin-induced acute tubular necrosis in rats. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2000;15(8):1175-82.

Sivakumar V, Dhanrajan MS, Riyazullah MS. Preliminary phytochemical screening and evaluation of free radical scavenging activity of Tinospora cordifolia. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2010;2(4):186-8.

Reddy SS, Ramatholisamma P, Karuna R, Saralakumari D. Preventive effect of Tinospora cordifolia against high-fructose diet-induced insulin resistance and oxidative stress in male Wistar rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47(9):2224-9.

Rawal A, Muddeshwar M, Biswas S. Effect of Rubia cordifolia, Fagonia cretica linn, and Tinospora cordifolia on free radical generation and lipid peroxidation during oxygen-glucose deprivation in rat hippocampal slices. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;324(2):588-96.

Kumar V, Modi PK, Saxena KK. Exploration of hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia - An experimental study. Asian J Pharm and Clin Res. 2013:6(1):87-91.