Comparative study of adverse drug reaction pattern of two anti-asthma groups of drugs in a tertiary care hospital
Keywords:Adverse drug reaction, Bronchial asthma, Beta 2 agonist, Methylxanthine
Background: Bronchial Asthma is one of the worldwide health problems associated with increased morbidity and also mortality. Bronchial Asthma is a disease of airways that is characterized by increased responsiveness of the trachea-bronchial tree. Anti asthmatic drugs are associated with adverse effects which can affect the compliance and course of treatment. Monitoring adverse drug reactions in asthma will play a vital role in alerting physicians about the possibility and circumstances of such events, thereby protecting the user population from avoidable harm.
Methods: The study was conducted in 500 bronchial asthma patients (250 patients in Beta 2 agonist group (Salbutamol) and 250 patients in Methylxanthine group (Deriphyllin) who fulfilled the study criteria and were observed for three months at Madras Medical College and Rajiv Gandhi Government General Hospital, Chennai. Their prescriptions were collected and analysed. Adverse drug reactions(ADRs) in each group were collected and evaluated. The causality assessment was done by WHO-UMC assessment scale and severity by using Modified Hartwig-Seigel severity assessment scale.
Results: Total 38% of patients taking anti-asthma drugs were encountered adverse drug reactions and were more common in elderly females (61 to 70 years). Adverse Drug Reactions were more common in Methylxanthine group (48%) compared to Beta 2 agonist group (28%). Headache (38%) was the commonest ADR in Methylxanthine group and Tremors (31%) in Beta 2 agonist group. Most of ADRs were mild (95 %), manageable and comes under possible (60 %) category of WHO causality assessment scale.
Conclusions: Treatment of Bronchial Asthma is mainly based on Beta 2 agonist and Methylxanthine group. So, occurrence of ADR is much common. Our study offers a representative idea of the ADR profile of anti asthmatic drugs. Constant vigil in detecting ADRs and subsequent dose adjustments can make therapy with anti asthmatic drugs safer and more effective. This, in turn, will improve compliance.
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