DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20191598

Age and gender based prevalence of obesity in residents of Punjab, India

Satinderjit Singh, Ravjit Kaur Sabharwal, Jagminder Kaur Bajaj, Indira R. Samal, Megha Sood

Abstract


Background: Obesity is recognized as a chronic disease, associated with a variety of metabolic, cardiovascular and neurological complications. Prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide, more so in the developing countries. It is affecting both sexes and all age groups. Body mass index BMI along with presence and severity of obesity associated complications are used to identify, successively increasing stages of obesity. The present study aims to study prevalence of overweight, obesity (stage 0,1,2) and morbid obesity in adult residents of Punjab state in an effort to determine burden of this lifestyle disorder in different age groups and sexes, so that a comprehensive action plan can be designed to target appropriate group with specific preventive measures .

Methods: 1000 subjects were surveyed and labelled as non-obese, overweight, obese or morbid obese based on their BMI, presence and severity of obesity related complications. Point prevalence amongst different age groups of both sexes were determined and compared.

Results: In study population 41.5% subjects were non-obese, 15.9% were overweight, 29.4% were obese and 13.2% were morbidly obese. The prevalence of all the 3 conditions (overweight, obesity and morbid obesity) increased with increasing age in both sexes. The prevalence was more among females of all age groups than males for ‘overweight’ and ‘obesity’. But gender based difference narrowed down with increasing severity of disease, such that female to male ratio reversed (<1) for morbid obesity. Moreover, peak prevalence of overweight and obesity were attained little later in females as compared to males. However, for morbid obesity peak prevalence is seen in same age group (40-49 years) in both sexes.

Conclusions: Overweight and obesity are more prevalent among females of all age groups than males with peak prevalence achieved little later in females as compared to males. However, gender based differences in prevalence decreased as severity increased and morbid obesity was more prevalent among males than females.


Keywords


Body mass index, Complications, Morbid obesity, Overweight, Peak prevalence, Punjabi population

Full Text:

PDF

References


Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation. World health organization Pech Rep Sir. 2000;894:1x11:1- 253. Available at: www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-jdms/pages/13(4)version-7.html

Javed A, Hassan H. Characteristics of diabetic patients. Ann King Edward Med J. 2000;6(2):196-9.

Kumar P, Clark M. Obesity In: Kumar P, Clark M, eds. Clinical Medicine. 4th Ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1998:209.

Sood R, Gupta A. An epidemiological study of obesity in Shimla town. Indian J Med Sci. 1996 Oct;50(10):362-4.

Stevens J. Impact of age on association between weight and mortality. Nutr Rev. 2000 May;58(5):129-37.

Bray GA, Bellanger T. Epidemiology, trends and morbidities of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Endocrine. 2006;29:109-17.

Chopra M, Galbraith S, Darnton-hill I. A global response to a global problem: the epidemic of over nutrition. Bull World health Organ. 2002;80:952-8.

The Hindu. India facing obesity epidemic: experts, 2007. Available at: http://hindu.com./2007/10/12/stories/2007101260940600.htm. Accessed12 October 2007.

Overweight and obesity prevalence among Indian women by place of residence and socio-economic status: Contrasting patterns from ‘underweight states’ and ‘overweight states’ of India. Soc Sci med. 2015 Aug;138:161-9.

Principles for estimation of energy requirements. Available at: http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/AA040E/AA040E04.htm. Accessed Jan 15th 2016.

The American association of clinical endocrinologists and the American college of endocrinology, advanced framework for a new diagnosis of obesity as a chronic disease; 2014.

Sturm R. Increase in morbid obesity in the USA 2000-2005. Public health. July 2007;121(7);492-6.

Bei-Fan Z. Predictive values of body mass index and waist circumference for risk factors of certain related diseases in Chinese adults: study on optimal cut off points of BMI and WC in Chinese adults. Asia Pac j clin Nutr. Dec 2002;11(8):685-93.

De Lorenzo A, Soldati L, Sarlo F, Calvani M, DiLorenzo N, DiLorenzo L. New obesity classification criteria as a tool for bariatric surgery indication. World J Gastroentereol. 2016 Jan 14;22(2):681-703.

Garber A, Abrahamson M, Barzilay J, Blonde L, Bloomgarden Z, Bush M, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists' comprehensive diabetes management algorithm 2013 consensus statement. Endocrine Practice. 2013 May 1;19 (Supplement 2):1-48.

Garvey WT. New tools for weight loss therapy enable a more robust medical model for obesity treatment: Rationale for a complication centric approach. Endocrine Practice. 2013;19:864-74.

Rohilla R, Rajput M, Rohilla J, Malik M, Garg D, Verma M. Prevalence and correlates of overweight/obesity among adolescents in an urban city of north India. J Family Med Prim Care. 2014 Oct- Dec;3(4):404-8.

Deepa M, Farooq S, Deepa R, Manjula D, Mohan V. Prevalence and significance of generalized and central body obesity in an urban Asian Indian population in Chennai, India (CURES:47) Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009;63:259-67.

Bhardwaj S, Misra A, Misra R, Goel K, Bhatt SP, rastogi KV, et al. High prevalence of abdominal, intra-abdominal and sub cutaneous adiposity and clustering of risk factors among urban Asian Indians in North India. PLoS One. 2011;6:e24362.

Shirazi IB, Hamid S, Rafiq M, Hamid S. A cross-sectional study to determine sex-wise prevalence of obesity in adults of Kashmiri population. Int J Res Med Sci. 2014;2;667-71.

Muhammad A, Khan A, Khattak MMAK. Prevalence of obesity in male in relation to dietry intake and physical activity level. Pak J Nutr. 2003;2(4):234-7.

Khan AA, Khan A. Prevalence and etiology of obesity-An overview. Pak J Nutr. 2004;3(1):14-25.

Pradeepa R, Anjana RM, Joshi SR, et al. Prevalence of generalized and abdominal obesity in urban and rural India-the ICMR-INDIAB study (phase 1) [ICMR- INDIAB-3]. Indian J Med Rese. 2015;142(2):139-50.

Undavalli VK, Ponnaganti SC, Narni H. Prevalence of generalized and abdominal obesity: India’s big problem. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2018 Apr;5(4):1311-6.

Mumbai: IIPS. International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) and Macro international. National Family Health Survey (NFHS3), 2005-06: India: 2007;I. Available at: ttps://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FRIND3/FRIND3-vol1andvol2.pdf

Pandey RM, Gupta R, Misra A, Misra P, Singh V, Agrawal A, et al. Determinants of urban-rural differences in cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged women in India: a cross-sectional study. Int J Cardiol. 2013;163:157-62.

Al Mahroos F, Al Roomi K. Obesity among adult Bahraini population: impact of physical activity and educational level. Ann Saudi Med. 2001;21(3-4):183-7.

Serena L, Mien CC, Deurenberg-Yap M. Review on epidemic of Obesity. Ann Acad Med. 2009 Jan;38(1):57-65.

Epidemiology and Disease Control Dept., Ministry of Health. National Health survey of Singapore, 1998. In: Epidemiology and Disease Control Dept., Ministry of Health. Singapur: National Library Board Singapore;1999:108.

Health Topics, Obesity World Health Organisation retrieved 14 Dec 2017. WHO obesity Available at: https://www.who.int/health topics/obesity

Wilson C, Gilliland S, Moore K, Acton K. The epidemic of extreme obesity among American Indian and Alaska native adults with diabetes. Prev Chronic Dis. 2007 Jan;4(1):A06.

Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in United States, 2011-12. JAMA. 2014 Feb;311(8):806.