A cross sectional study to assess pharmacotherapeutic adherence among diabetes mellitus patients in tertiary care hospital

Richa Gaur, Virendra Kushwaha, Pooja Agrawal, Saurabh Agrawal, Amit Kumar, Kriti Malhotra


Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) refers to a group of common metabolic disorders that associated with abnormalities in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism which results in chronic complications. Attainment of optimal blood sugar level is generally based on appropriate usage and proper adherence to prescribed medications. The study was, therefore, aimed to assess adherence to oral antidiabetic drugs among diabetic patients attending outpatient clinic of L. L. R. Hospital, G.S.V.M. Medical College, Kanpur, U.P.

Methods: Hospital based cross-sectional study design was conducted from April 2017 to June 2018. The data was collected by interviewing T2DM patients receiving antidiabetic medications using Morisky’s four item adherence assessment questionnaire. The collected data was processed and analyzed with SPSS version 20.

Results: From the 126 patients of diabetes, when asked about adherence to their medications as per the Morisky's four item method, 114 (90.47%) of them did not forget to take the drugs, 108 (85.71%) of patients reported that they had been being careful in taking their medications, 90 (71.42%) patients did not stop medications when they felt better and the other 108 (85.71%) patients reported that they did not stop medications when they felt worse while taking medications. This study shows that 54 (42.86%) respondents were adherent to their medications.

Conclusions: This study revealed a moderate level of adherence among the participants and statistically significantly depended upon their socioeconomic status. Efforts are needed to increase the medication adherence of these patients’, so they can realize the full advantage of prescribed therapies.


Morisky’s scale,Pharmacotherapeutic adherence, Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Full Text:



Sabate E. WHO Adherence Meeting Report. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2001. Available at:

World Health Organization, Global Report on Diabetes. Geneva, 2016. Available at: Accessed 12 October 2018.

Simple treatment to curb diabetes. Available at: Assessed 10 October 2018.

Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H. Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care. 2004 May 1;27(5):1047-53.

Diabetes can be controlled in 80 percent of Cases in India. Indo-Asian News Service. Available at: Accessed 6 February 2014.

Sontakke S, Jadhav M, Pimpalkhute S, Jaiswal K, Bajait C. Evaluation of adherence to therapy in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Young Pharmacists. 2015 Oct 1;7(4):462-9.

Sajith M, Pankaj M, Pawar A, Modi A, Sumariya R. Medication adherence to antidiabetic therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2014;(6), Suppl 2: 564-570.

Rickles N, Brown T, McGivney M, Snyder M, White K. Adherence A review of education research practice and policy in the United States. J Pharm Pract. 2010;8:1-17.

Lee CS, Tan JH, Sankari U, Koh YL, Tan NC. Assessing oral medication adherence among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with polytherapy in a developed Asian community: a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open. 2017 Sep 1;7(9):e016317.

Huber CA, Reich O. Medication adherence in patients with diabetes mellitus: does physician drug dispensing enhance quality of care? Evidence from a large health claims database in Switzerland. Patient Preference and Adherence. Dovepress. 2016;10:1803-1809.

Navya CJ, Naveen R, Ashwini GS, Manu A, Steve J, Singh J, et al. Adherence to Medication among patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus in selected tea estates in South India. JIMSA. 2015;28(1):16-7.

Rao CR, Kamath VG, Shetty A, Kamath A. Treatment compliance among patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus in a coastal population of Southern India. Int J Preventive Med. 2014 Aug;5(8):992-8.

Abebaw M, Messele A, Hailu M, Zewdu F. Adherence and associated factors towards antidiabetic medication among type II diabetic patients on follow-up at University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Adv Nursing. 2016;2016.

Sharma T, Kalra J, Dhasmana DC, Basera H. Poor adherence to treatment: a major challenge in diabetes. JIACM. 2014;15(1):26-9.

jemal a, abdela j, sisay m. adherence to oral antidiabetic medications among type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients in chronic ambulatory wards of Hiwot Fana specialized university hospital, Harar, Eastern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study. J Diabetes Metab. 2017;8(1):721.

Gelaw BK, Mohammed A, Tegegne GT, Defersha AD, Fromsa M, Tadesse E, et al. Nonadherence and contributing factors among ambulatory patients with antidiabetic medications in Adama Referral Hospital. J Diab Res. 2014;2014.

EI-Hadiyah TM, Madani AM, Abdelrahim HM, Yousif AK. Factors affecting medication non adherence in type 2 Sudanese diabetic patients. Pharmacol Pharmacy. 2016 Apr 14;7(04):141.

Elsous A, Radwan M, Al-Sharif H, Abu Mustafa A. Medications adherence and associated factors among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Gaza Strip, Palestine. Frontiers Endocrinol. 2017 Jun 9;8:100.

Arifulla M, Lisha Jenny JO, Sreedharan J, Muttappallymyalil J, Basha SA. Patients’ adherence to anti-diabetic medications in a hospital at Ajman, UAE. Malaysian J Med Sci. 2014 Jan;21(1):44-9.