A survey on the knowledge, attitude, and practices about antibiotic usage and resistance among homeopathic general practitioners


  • Yogesh B. Magar Department of Pharmacology, B. J. Government Medical College, Pune, Maharashtra, India http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1064-4331
  • Rajesh S. Hiray Department of Pharmacology, B. J. Government Medical College, Pune, Maharashtra, India
  • Jyoti B. Gadhade Department of Pharmacology, B. J. Government Medical College, Pune, Maharashtra, India
  • Balasaheb B. Ghongane Department of Pharmacology, B. J. Government Medical College, Pune, Maharashtra, India




Antibiotic resistance, Homeopathy HCPs, Over the counter, Rational prescribing


Background: Antimicrobial resistance(AMR) is an urgent and serious global health problem, demanding considerable attention from health care providers(HCPs) all over the world. The threat is progressing rapidly and intensifying with time. Therefore study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of Homeopathic HCPs about antibiotic usage and resistance(ABR).

Methods: Cross-sectional, observational study. The data was collected from 75 Homeopathic HCPs practicing in Maharashtra with prior informed consent. Questionnaire based study whose responses were assessed by using five point Likert scale and analysed by using appropriate descriptive statistics.

Results: 68(90.67%) respondents agreed that antibiotics are overused in India and 70(93.33%) of them facing ABR in their daily practices. Only 62(82.7%) of them were aware of the fact that bacteria are not responsible for causing colds and flu. 33(44%) believe that skipping one or two doses of antibiotic does not contribute to ABR. Only 23(30.67%) knew drug schedule H correctly. 22(29.33%) opined that antibiotics should be discontinued if patient develops mild gastrointestinal side effects. Only 28(37.33%) reads patient information leaflet(PIL) and counsel patients accordingly. 28(38.67%) feel that they don’t have enough sources of antibiotic information and 35(46.67%) find it difficult to select appropriate antibiotic.

Conclusions: Most of HCPs were aware of rising issue antibiotic resistance. However, their knowledge, attitude and practices were found to be a matter of some concern. Educational intervention can be introduced to bring about behaviour changes regarding rational antibiotics prescribing. Government should take initiative against overt antibiotic promotional advertisements and to curb over the counter(OTC) sell of antibiotics.


Kumar SG, Adithan C, Harish BN, Sujatha S, Roy G, Malini A. Antimicrobial resistance in India: a review. J Nat Sci Biol Med. 2013;4:286-9.

World Health Day 2011-Antibiotic resistance: No action today, no cure tomorrow. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/2011/whd_20110407/en/ind ex.html [Cited 4 Dec 2017]

Simpson SA, Wood F, Butler CC. General practitioners perceptions of antimicrobial resistance: a qualitative study. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2007;59:292-6.

Minen MT, Duquaine D, Marx MA, Weiss D. A survey of knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of medical students concerning antimicrobial use and resistance. Microb Drug Resist. 2010;16(4):285-9.

Sintchenko V, Iredell JR, Gilbert GL, Coiera E. What do physicians think about evidence-based antibiotic use in critical care? A survey of Australian intensivists and infectious disease practitioners. Inter Med J. 2001;31:462-9.

Zafar SN, Syed R, Waqar S, Zubairi AJ, Vaqar T, Shaikh M, Yousaf W, Shahid S, Saleem S. Self-medication amongst university students of Karachi: prevalence, knowledge and attitudes. J Pak Med Associa. 2008;58(4):214.

Guerra CM, Pereira CAP, Neto ARV, Cardo DM, Correa L. Physicians perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge concerning antimicrobial resistance in a Brazilian teaching hospital. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2007;28:1411-4.

World health organization. Prevention and containment of antimicrobial resistance. Available at: http://www.ino.searo.who.int/LinkFiles/Other_Content_WHD11-Seminar Presentation-WRpdf. [Cited 4 Dec 2017]

Huang Y, Gu J, Zhang M, Ren Z, Yang W, Chen Y. Knowledge, attitude and practice of antibiotics: a questionnaire study among 2500 Chinese students. BMC Medical Education. 2013;13:163.

Tarao SM, Nulla P, Zingpi M, Agatha G. A study on the knowledge, attitude, perceptions and practices of antibiotic usage and resistance among the medical students of JNIMS, Imphal, Manipur. Journal of Evidence Based Medicine and Healthcare. 2015;2:5262-8.

Gupta RK, Singh P, Rani R, Kumari R, Langer B, Gupta R. Antibiotic use: evaluating knowledge, attitude and practices among medical students in a sub Himalayan state. Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2017;6:2516-21.

Khanna S, Pratap S, Singh DK, Tutu S, Lakhani P, Dixit RK. A Survey on the Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices about anti-biotic resistance among general practitioners of Northern India. World J Pharm Sci. 2016;4(6):449-53.

Padmanabha TS, Nandini T, Manu G, Savka MK. Knowledge, attitude and practices of antibiotic usage among the medical undergraduates of a tertiary care teaching hospital: an observational cross-sectional study. Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol. 2016 Dec;5(6):2432-7.

Davey P, Garner S. Professional education on antimicrobial prescribing: a report from the Specialist Advisory Committee on Antimicrobial Resistance (SACAR) Professional Education Subgroup. J Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2007;60(1):i27-32.

Azevedo MM, Pinheiro C, Yaphe J, Baltazar F. Portuguese students’ knowledge of antibiotics: a cross-sectional study of secondary school and university students in Braga. BMC Public Health. 2009;9:359.

Steinberg I. Clinical choices of antibiotics: judging judicious use. The Am J Managed Care. 2000;6(23):S1178-88.

Mahajan M, Dughgaonkar S, Deshmukh S. A questionnaire based survey on the knowledge, attitude and practises about antimicrobial resistance and usage among the second year MBBS students of a teaching tertiary care hospital in central India. International Journal of Pharmacological Research. 2014;4:175-9.

Sharma S, Jayakumar D, Palappallil DS, Kesavan KP. Knowledge, attitude and practices of antibiotic usage and resistance among the second year MBBS Students. Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol. 2016;5:899-903.

Wester CW, Durairaj L, Evans AT, Schwartz DN, Husain S, Martinez E. Antibiotic Resistance - A Survey of Physician Perceptions. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162:2210-6.




How to Cite

Magar, Y. B., Hiray, R. S., Gadhade, J. B., & Ghongane, B. B. (2018). A survey on the knowledge, attitude, and practices about antibiotic usage and resistance among homeopathic general practitioners. International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 7(11), 2112–2121. https://doi.org/10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20184242



Original Research Articles