Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Calotropis procera root in wistar rats


  • Kunjumon Dayana Department of Pharmacology, Pushpagiri Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Thiruvalla, Kerala, India
  • Megaravalli R. Manasa Department of Pharmacology, Karwar Institute of Medical Sciences, Karwar, Karnataka, India



Antioxidant, Calotropis procera, Free radicals, Wistar rats


Background: Free radicals generated as by-products of metabolism can cause damage to lipids, proteins and DNA. They are scavenged by endogenous antioxidant mechanisms. But when these mechanisms are overwhelmed, free radicals can cause toxicity. There is a need to identify new antioxidant compounds. Hence the current study was undertaken to assess the antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Calotropis procera roots in Wistar rats.

Methods: Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 (control) were administered vehicle. Group 2 received DMBA (30mg/kg BW, single dose) intraperitoneally on day 5. Group 3 was pre-treated with Calotropis procera root extract (500mg/kg BW) orally for 5 days. On day 5, they were given DMBA injection 2 hrs after the extract. Group 4 rats received only root extract for 5 days. All rats were sacrificed on day 6 and samples were analysed for TBARS, conjugated dienes and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx) levels.

Results: The levels of TBARS, conjugated dienes were significantly increased, and antioxidant enzymes were decreased in group 2 both in plasma and erythrocytes. Pretreatment with C. procera root extract (group 3) has normalized the TBARS and conjugated dienes levels in plasma but in erythrocytes, TBARS levels are elevated. GPx activity was significantly decreased in both plasma and erythrocytes and SOD activity was decreased in erythrocytes. CAT activity was comparable to control group. Group 4 rats showed TBARS, conjugated dienes and antioxidant enzymes levels comparable to control.

Conclusions: The present study establishes that Calotropis procera root extract has antioxidant activity in wistar rats.


Parke DV, Sapota A. Chemical toxicity and reactive oxygen species. Int J Occcup Med Environmental Health. 1996;9(4):331-40.

Senthil N, Manoharan S. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidants status in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma in India. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2004;13 (4): 391-5.

Bandyopadhyay U, Das D, Banerjee RK. Reactive oxygen species: oxidative damage and pathogenesis. Current Sc. 1999 Sep 10:658-66.

Ames BN, Shigenaga MK, Hagen TM. Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging. Proceedings National Acad Sci. 1993 Sep 1;90(17):7915-22.

Halliwell B. Free radicals, antioxidants, and human disease: curiosity, cause, or consequence?. Lancet. 1994 Sep 10;344(8924):721-4.

Yu BP. Cellular defenses against damage from reactive oxygen species. Physiological Rev. 1994 Jan 1;74(1):139-62.

Ahmad N, Anwar F, Hameed S and Boyce MC. Antioxidant and antimicrobial attributes of different solvent extracts from leaves and flowers of Calotropis procera. J Medicinal Plants Res, 2011;5(19):4879-87.

Chaudhary P, Ahamad S, Khan NA. A review on medicinal utility of Calotropis procera. WJPMR, 2017;3(1):335-42.

Parihar G, Balekar N. Immunomodulating potential of Calotropis procera (ait.) root bark ethanolic extract on experimental animal. J Adv Pharm Educ Res. 2014 Jul;4:268-76.

Sangraula H, Dewan S, Kumar VL. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of latex of Calotropis procera in different models of inflammation. Inflammopharmacol. 2001 Jun 1;9(3):257-64.

Roy S, Sehgal R, Padhy BM, Kumar VL. Antioxidant and protective effect of latex of Calotropis procera against alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Dec 1;102(3):470-3.

Basu A, Sen T, Pal S, Mascolo N, Capasso F, Nag AK. Studies on the antiulcer activity of the chloroform fraction of Calotropis procera Root extract. Phytother Res. 1996;11(2):163-5.

Quaquebeke VE, Simon G, Andre A, Dewelle J, Yazidi ME, Bruyneel F, et al. Identification of a novel cardenolide (2‑oxovoruscharin) from Calotropis procera and the hemisynthesis of novel derivatives displaying potent in vitro antitumor activities and high in vivo tolerance: Structure‑activity relationship analyses. J Med Chem. 2005;48:849‑5.

Basu A, Chaudhari AK. Preliminary studies on the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Calotropis procera root extract. J Ethnopharmacol. 1991;31:319-24.

Shrivastava A, Singh S, Singh S. Phytochemical Investigation of Different Plant Parts of Calotropis procera. Int J Sci Res Publications. 2013;3(8):1-4.

Pugalendhi P, Manoharan S, Panjamurthy K, Balakrishnan S, Nirmal MR. Antigenotoxic effect of genistein against 7, 12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene induced genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of female Wistar rats. Pharmacological Reports. 2009 Mar 1;61(2):296-303.

Ray G, Husain SA. Oxidant, antioxidants and carcinogenesis. Indian J Exp Biol. 2002;40:1213-32.

Nagini S, Manoharan S. Biomonitoring the chemopreventive potential of plant products neem and turmeric in 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide induced oral carcinogenesis. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 1997;23(1):33-40.

Yagi K. Lipid peroxides and human diseases. Chemistry Physics Lipids. 1987 Nov 1;45(2-4):337-51.

Donnan SK. The thiobarbituric acid test applied to tissues from rats treated in various ways. J Biological Chemistry. 1950 Jan 1;182(1):415-20.

Rao KS, Recknagel RO. Early onset of lipoperoxidation in rat liver after carbon tetrachloride administration. Experimental Molecular Pathol. 1968 Oct 1;9(2):271-8.

Kakkar P, Das B, Viswanathan PN. A modified spectrophotometric assay of superoxide dismutase. Ind J Bio Chem Bio Phys. 1984;21:130-2.

Sinha K.A. Colorimetric assay of catalase Bio Chem. 1972;47:389-94.

Rotruck JT, Pope AL, Ganther HE, Swanson AB, Hafeman DG, Hoekstra W. Selenium: biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Science. 1973 Feb 9;179(4073):588-90.

Liu JI, Wang X, Shigenaga MK, Yeo HC, Mori A, Ames BN. Immobilization stress causes oxidative damage to lipid, protein, and DNA in the brain of rats. FASEB J. 1996 Nov;10(13):1532-8.

Olivenza R, Moro MA, Lizasoain I, Lorenzo P, Fernández AP, Rodrigo J, et al. Chronic stress induces the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in rat brain cortex. J Neurochem. 2000 Feb 1;74(2):785-91.

Ibrahim W, Lee US, Yen HC, Clair DK, Chow CK. Antioxidant and oxidative status in tissues of manganese superoxide dismutase transgenic mice. Free Radical Biol Med. 2000 Feb 1;28(3):397-402.

Ito Y, Kajkenova O, Feuers RJ, Udupa KB, Desai VG, Epstein J, Hart RW, Lipschitz Det alA. Impaired glutathione peroxidase activity accounts for the age-related accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in activated human neutrophils. J Gerontol Series a: Biol Sci Med Sci. 1998 May 1;53(3):M169-75.

Baskaran N, Manoharan S, Karthikeyan S, Prabhakar MM. Chemopreventive potential of coumarin in 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13(10):5273-9.

Kumar S, Gupta A, Pandey AK. Calotropis procera root extract has the capability to combat free radical mediated damage. ISRN Pharmacol. 2013 Oct 9;2013.

Mohamed MA, Hamed MM, Ahmed WS, Abdou AM. Antioxidant and cytotoxic flavonols from Calotropis procera. J Natural Sci. 2011 Dec 1;66(11-12):547-54.

Murti Y, Yogi B, Pathak D. In-vitro antioxidant activity of column chromatographic elutes of different extracts of Calotropis procera (giant milkweed) leaves. J Pharm Res. 2011;4(10):3452-4.

Bajpai S, Hooda H, Singh RK and Mishra R. Comparative analysis of antioxidant properties of extracts of Calotropis procera with different antidiabetic drugs. Int J Herbal Med. 2018;6(2):104-9.

Joshi R, Sharma A, Jat BL. Analysis of antioxidant activity in extracts of Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br. J Applied Biosci. 2009;17:899-903.




How to Cite

Dayana, K., & Manasa, M. R. (2018). Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Calotropis procera root in wistar rats. International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 7(11), 2107–2111.



Original Research Articles