Analysis of adverse drug reactions in a tertiary care emergency medicine department: prevalence, preventability and reporting

Shreya R. Patel, Sapna D. Gupta, Kamlesh P. Patel, Supriya D. Malhotra, Pankaj R. Patel


Background: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are negative consequences of drug therapy. ADR results in diminished quality of life, increased physician visits, hospitalizations, and even death. Hence a study was planned to detect and analyze ADR encountered in emergency medicine department.

Methods: Data was collected over a period of 1 year after taking approval from IRB (Institutional Review Board) and written informed consent from patients. ADRs presenting as a cause of hospital admission or developed during hospitalization were analyzed.

Results: A total of 229 ADRs were analyzed. Majority of ADRs were found in the age group of 40-60 Years. The M: F Ratio was 1.10:1. According to Wills and Brown Classification, majority of the ADRs belonged to Type A. According to Hartwig and Siegel classification of severity of ADRs, 18.78% of the ADRs were severe in nature. According to Schumock and Thornton preventability score, majority (64.19%) of the ADRs were not preventable, whereas 17.03% were definitely preventable. 120 (52.40%) of the ADRs were serious in nature Anti-infective were the most common drug class (30.13%) followed by CVS (24.03%) group of drugs. About (57.64%) ADRs fall in the category of probable/likely. Regarding their Outcome, 44.10% of the ADRs were recovered and 43.23% were recovering.

Conclusions: Anti-infective were the most reported drug class to cause ADRs in a tertiary care emergency medicine department. Causality assessment according to WHO-UMC and Naranjo’s causality assessment criteria reported to be Probable. Whereas modified Schumock and Thornton scale preventability scale showed that majority were not preventable.


Adverse drug reactions, Causality, Emergency Medicine Department

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