A novel rapid - acting oral inhalation human insulin for diabetes mellitus: Afrezza


  • Ravindra S. Beedimani Department of Pharmacology, Kamineni Academy of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Hyderabad, Telangana
  • Shivkumar G. Shetkar Department of Skin and Venereal Disease, Bidar Institute of Medical Sciences, Bidar, Karnataka




Afrezza, Type 1 diabetes mellitus, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, Rapid-acting human insulin analog, Regular-human insulin


Afrezza is rapid-acting oral inhalation insulin that is administered at the beginning of each meal. The U.S Food and Drug Administration has approved Afrezza (insulin human) inhalation powder, a rapid-acting inhaled insulin to improve glycemic control in adults ≥18 years of age with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM or T2DM). Afrezza must be used in combination with long-acting insulin in patients with T1DM. Afrezza may be used with either oral anti-diabetic drugs or basal insulin in patients with T2DM. Afrezza should be administered via oral inhalation using Afrezza inhaler. Dosage adjustment is needed when switching from injection insulin to oral inhalation Afrezza. It is contraindicated in individuals with chronic lung disease and smokers because of the risk of the acute bronchospasm. Before initiating, Afrezza, a complete medical history, physical examination and spirometry (forced expiratory volume 1 sec) results is required in all individuals to identify the potential lung disease. Common adverse reactions in individuals treated with Afrezza include hypoglycemia, cough, throat pain or irritation, headache, and diarrhea.


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How to Cite

Beedimani, R. S., & Shetkar, S. G. (2016). A novel rapid - acting oral inhalation human insulin for diabetes mellitus: Afrezza. International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 4(5), 1040–1042. https://doi.org/10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20150892



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