Comparison of dietary agents’ garlic and bitter melon on in vitro glycation and advanced glycation end products formation


  • Gini Garima Department of Biochemistry Shaheed Hasan Khan Mewati Govt Medical College, Nalhar, Mewat (Haryana), India
  • Neeraj Kumar Agrawal Department of Pharmacology, Himalayan Institute of Medical Science, SRH University, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India
  • Shagufta Moin Department of Biochemistry, J N Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttarpradesh, India
  • Pankaj Kumar Gupta Medical Consultant, E. Z. Bioxcel Solutions Pvt Ltd, Gurgaon, Haryana, India



AGEs, HAS, Momordica charantia L, Aged garlic


Background: Protein glycation is a spontaneous post translational modification of proteins by excess sugars causing formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in diabetic individuals and responsible for diabetes complications. Momordica charantia L (bitter melon) and garlic have been used historically for medicinal purposes particularly for treatment of diabetes and cancers and contain potent antioxidant activity hence we planned to compare the antiglycating activities.

Methods: Human serum albumin (HSA) was used for in vitro glycation. Various concentrations of extracts of M. charantia L and aged garlic were analyzed.

Results: Co-incubation of the M. charantia L and aged garlic extracts with HSA-fructose mixture gives contradictory results in tryptophan fluorescence, AGE specific fluorescence and protein bound carbonyl studies.

Conclusions: M. charantia L seems to aggravate sugar mediated glycation of the protein and need further studies to pinpoint specific bioactive compounds responsible for the observed activities whereas aged garlic seems to have strong ant glycation properties.


Ahmed N. Advanced glycation endproducts-role in pathology of diabetic complications. Diabetes Res. Clin Pract. 2005;67:3-21.

Voziyan PA, Khalifah RG, Thibaudeau C, Yildiz A, Jacob J, Serianni AS, Hudson BG. Modification of proteins in vitro by physiological levels of glucose: pyridoxamine inhibits conversion of Amadori intermediate to advanced glycation end-products through binding of redox metal ions. J Biol Chem. 2003;278(47):46616-24.

Bucala R, Makita Z, Vega G, Grundy S, Koschinsky T, Cerami A, Vlassara H. Modification of low density lipoprotein by advanced glycation end products contributes to the dyslipidemia of diabetes and renal insufficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 1994;91(20):9441-45.

Vitek MP, Bhattacharya K, Glendening JM, Stopa E, Vlassara H, Bucala R, Manogue K, Cerami A. Advanced glycation end products contribute to amyloidosis in Alzheimer disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 1994;91(11):4766-70.

Brownlee M, Vlassara H, Kooney A, Ulrich P, Cerami A. Amino guanidine prevents diabetes-induced arterial wall protein cross-linking. Science. 1986;232(4758):1629-32.

Huby R, Harding JJ. Non-enzymic glycosylation (glycation) of lens proteins by galactose and protection by aspirin and reduced glutathione. Exp Eye Res. 1988;47:53-9.

Booth AA, Khalifah RG, Hudson BG. Thiamine pyrophosphate and pyridoxamine inhibit the formation of antigenic advanced glycation end-products: comparison with aminoguanidine. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;220(1):113-9.

Malone JI, Lowitt S, Cook WR. Non osmotic diabetic cataracts. Pediatr Res. 1990;27:293-6.

Morimitsu Y, Yoshida K, Esaki S, Hirota A. Protein glycation inhibitors from thyme (Thymus vulgaris). Biosci Biotechnol Biochem.1995;59;2018-21.

Raza K, Harding JJ. Non-enzymic modification of lens proteins by glucose and fructose, effects of ibuprofen. Exp Eye Res. 1991;52:205-12.

Rahman K. Garlic and aging: new insights into an old remedy. Ageing Res Rev. 2003;2(1):39-56.

Imai J, Ide N, Nagae S, Moriguchi T, Matsuura H, Itakura Y. Antioxidant and radical scavenging effects of aged garlic extract and its constituents. Planta Med. 1994;60(5):417-20.

Ahmed I, Lakhani MS, Gillett M, John A, Raza H. Diabet Res Clin Pract. 2001;51:155-61.

Virdi J, Sivakami S, Shahani S, Suthar AC, Banavalikar MM, Biyani MK. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;88:107-11.

Rotshteyn Y, Zito SW. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;93:337-44.

Dhalla NS, Gupta KC, Sastry MS, Malhotra CL. Indian J Pharm. 1961;23:128.

Tayyab S, Qasim MA. Purification and properties of buffalo serum albumin. Biochem Int. 1990;20(2):405-15.

Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Forr AL, Randall RJ. Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem. 1951;193:265-75.

Laemmli UK. Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature. 1970;227(5259):680-5.

Shaklai N, Garlick RL, Bunn HF. Nonenzymatic glycosylation of human serum albumin alters its conformation and function. J Biol Chem. 1984;259:3812-7.

Galle J, Schneider R, Winner B, Lehmann–Bodem C. Glyc-oxidized LDL impairs endothelial function more potently than oxidized LDL: role of enhanced oxidative stress. Atherosclerosis. 1998;138(1):65-77.

Levine LR, Garland D, Oliver NC, Amici A, Climent I, Lenz AG et al. Determination of carbonyl content in oxidatively modified proteins. Methods Enzymol. 1990;186:464-78.

Saucier CT, Waterhouse AL. Synergetic activity of catechin and other antioxidants. J Agric Food Chem. 1999;47(11):4491-4.

Singh R, Barden A, Mori T, Beilin L. Advanced glycation end-products: a review. Diabetologia. 2001;44(2):129-46.

Turk Z. Advanced glycation toxicity in diabetic complications. Diabetol Croatica. 1997;26:11-26.

Garima G, Moin S, Agrawal NK, Gupta PK, Dwivedi S, Gupta U. A study on the role of dietary agent aged garlic extract on protein glycation. World J Pharm Res. 2015;4(9):968-76.




How to Cite

Garima, G., Agrawal, N. K., Moin, S., & Gupta, P. K. (2016). Comparison of dietary agents’ garlic and bitter melon on in vitro glycation and advanced glycation end products formation. International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 5(2), 257–262.



Original Research Articles