DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20181184

Antidepressant activity of aqueous extract of Momordica charantia leaves

Abdul Haseeb M., Farida Ahmad, Anil Kumar

Abstract


Background: Depression is a common debilitating illness contributing to increase in morbidity and mortality worldwide. 20% of all depressed patients are refractory to treatment with available antidepressants at adequate doses. Momordica charantia commonly known as Karela is widely used in Indian cuisine. This study was carried out to evaluate its lesser known Antidepressant activity. The objective of this study is to evaluate the Antidepressant activity of Aqueous extract of Momordica charantia leaves.

Methods: This study was done in Department of Pharmacology, JNMC, AMU. Tail Suspension test and 5-Hydroxytrytophan induced Head Potentiation was evaluated in Swiss Albino mice. Forced swim test, Learned Helplessness test and Spontaneous motor activity was noted in Albino Wistar rats respectively at doses of AEMC (Aqueous extract of Momordica charantia leaves) 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 300mg/kg.

Results: AEMC at all three doses 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 300mg/kg exhibited antidepressant activity by significantly decreasing the immobility time in Tail Suspension test and except 100mg/kg. In forced swim test psychostimulant activity of AEMC was ruled out in Spontaneous motor activity. Number of Escape failures was decreased in Learned Helplessness test at doses of AEMC 200mg/kg and 300 mg/kg. Increase in Head twitches was seen only with AEMC 300mg/kg in 5-Hydroxytrytophan induced Head Potentiation in mice.

Conclusions: Aqueous Extract of Momordica Charantia leaves exhibits Antidepressant activity in animal models of Depression.


Keywords


Depression, Forced swim test, Learned helplessness test, Momordica charantia, Tail suspension test, 5-Hydroxytrytophan induced head potentiation in mice

Full Text:

PDF

References


World Health Organization. The World health report: Mental health: new understanding, new hope. Geneva, 2001. Available at: http://www.who.int/whr/2001/en/whr01_en.pdf Accessed on 11th January 2012.

Revised global burden of disease (GBD) 2002 estimates. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2005. Available at: http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/GBD_report_2004update_full.pdfAccessed on 11th January 2012.

Rang HP, Dale MM, Ritter JM, Flower RJ. Antidepressant drugs.In: Rang HP, Dale MM, Ritter JM, Flower JM. Rang and Dale’s Pharmacology. 6th Ed. Churchill Livingstone; 2009:557.

O'Donnell JM, Shelton RC. Drug Therapy of Depression and Anxiety Disorders. In: Brunton LL, Chabner BA, and Knollman BC, Eds, Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 12th Ed. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill; 2011:397-412.

Nutt DJ. Treatment of Depression. In: Bennet PN and Brown MJ, Eds., Clinical Pharmacology. 10th Ed. Philadelphia, USA: Churchill Livingstone; 2008:331-341.

Reus VI. Mental Disorders. In: Longo DL, Kasper DL, Jameson JL, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Loscalo J, eds. Harrison’s Principle of internal medicine. 18th Ed. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill; 2012:3536-37.

Tarkang PA, Ofogba CJ. Evaluation of the Hypoglycemic Activity and Safety of Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae). African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Pharmacy. 2012;3(1):17-29.

Kubola J, Siriamornpun S. Phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) leaf, stem and fruit fraction extracts in vitro. Food Chemistry. 2008;110:881-90.

Chaudhari BP, Chaware VJ, Joshi YR, Biyani KR. Hepatoprotective activity of Hydroalcoholic extract of Momordica charantia Linn. leaves against Carbon tetrachloride induced Hepatopathy in Rats. International Journal of Chem Tech Research. 2009;1(2):355-8.

Chaware VJ, Chaudhari BP, Joshi YR, Biyani KR. Protective Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Momordica charantia Leaves on Gentamicin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats. International Journal of Pharm Tech Research 2011 Jan-Mar; 3(1): 553-555.

Sethi P. Momordica charantia L- AnEthnobotanical drug. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences. 2012 April-June;3(2):1-5.

Waiyaput W, Payungporn S, Issara-Amphorn J, Panjaworayan NT. Inhibitory effects of crude extracts from some edible Thai plants against replication of hepatitis B virus and human liver cancer cells. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012 Dec 6;12:246.

Ganesan A. Natesan S. Perumal PG. Vellayutham R. Manickam K. Ramasamy N. Anxiolytic, Antidepressant and Anti- inflammatory activities of Methanol extract of Momordica charantia Linn. Leaves (Cucurbitaceae). Iranian Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2008;7:43.

OECD guidelines 423 for testing of chemicals; Acute oral toxicity by Acute toxic class method adopted on 17th Ed. December 2001. Available at: https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/iccvam/suppdocs/feddocs/oecd/oecd_gl423.pdf Accessed on 9th January 2012

Steru L, Chermat R, Thierry B, Simon P. The tail suspension test: a new method for screening antidepressants in mice. Psycho Pharmacology. 1985;85:367-70.

Porsolt RD, Anton G, Blavet N, Jalfre M. Behavioural despair in rats: a new model sensitive to anti depressive treatments. Eur J Pharmacol. 1978;47:379-91.

Boissier JR, Simon P. Action of caffeine on the spontaneous motility of the mouse. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther. 1965;158:212-21.

Porsolt RD, Martin P, Lenègre A, Fromage S, Drieu K. Effects of an extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGB 761) on learned helplessness and other models of stress in rodents. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1990;36:963-71.

Vogel HG. Drug Discovery and Evaluation Pharmacological Assay 2nd Ed. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg; 2002:570.

Krishnan V, Nestler EJ. The Molecular Neurobiology of Depression. Nature. 2008 October 16;455: 894-902.

Rang HP, Dale MM, Ritter JM, Flower RJ. Other transmitters and modulators. Rang and Dale’s Pharmacology. 6th Ed. Churchill Livingstone; 2009:499.

Sherman AD, Allers GL, Petty F, Henn FA. A neuro pharmacologically- relevant animal model of depression. Neuropharmacol. 1979;18:891-3.

Pemminati S, Gopalakrishna HN, Shenoy AK, Sahu SS, Mishra S, Meti V, Vinod N. Antidepressant activity of aqueous extract of fruits of Emblica Officinalis in mice. International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology. 2010 Aug-Oct;1(2):449-54.

Chhillar R, Dhingra D. Antidepressant-like activity of gallic acid in mice subjected to unpredictable chronic mild stress. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Aug;27(4):409-18.

Rocha FF, Lima-Landman MTR, Souccar C, Tanae MM, De Lima TCM, Lapa, Antidepressant-like effect of Cecropiaglazioui Sneth and its constituents – In vivo and in vitro characterization of the underlying mechanism. Phytomedicine. 2007;14:396-402.

Chasapis CT, Loutsidou AC, Spiliopoulou CA, Stefanidou ME. Zinc and human health: an update. Arch Toxicol. 2012 Apr;86(4):521-34.

Siwek M, Dudek D, Paul IA, Sowa-Kucma M, Zieba A, Popik P, Pilc A, Nowak G. Zinc supplementation augments efficacy of imipramine in treatment resistant patients: a double blind, placebo-controlled study. J Affect Disord. 2009;118:187-95.

Hall NT, Nagy S, Berry RE. Leaves for Food: Protein and Amino acid contents of leaves from 23 Tropical and Subtropical plants. Florida state Horticultural Society. 1975:486-490.

Zhang M, Hettiarachchy NS, Horax R, Chen P, Over KF. Effect of maturity stages and drying methods on the retention of selected nutrients and phytochemicals in bitter melon (Momordica charantia) leaf. J Food Sci. 2009 Aug;74(6):C441-8.

Aggarwal A, Gaur V, Kumar A. Nitric oxide mechanism in the protective effect of naringin against post-stroke depression (PSD) in mice. Life Sci. 2010;86(25-26):928-35.

Herrera-Ruiz M, Zamilpa A, González-Cortazar M, Reyes-Chilpa R, León E, García MP, et al. Antidepressant effect and pharmacological evaluation of standardized extract of flavonoids from Byrsonimacrassifolia. Phytomedicine. 2011;18:1255-61.