Concept learning through question framing in Pharmacology
Keywords:Concept learning, Cognition dimension, Critical thinking, Innovative learning, Knowledge dimension, Question framing
Background: Framing questions is a skill that requires expertise, knowledge, guidance and mentoring. It provides structure for deep learning, critical thinking and also promotes interaction and communication. Objective of this study is to analyze the question framing skills of fifth semester medical students on a ‘must know’ area in Pharmacology.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was done in the Department of Pharmacology of a Government Medical College in Central Kerala. After briefing about the study, each of the participants was instructed to frame a question which were collected after 15 minutes. The data on different aspects of questions was analysed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 16.
Results: Total 130 students, 79 females and 51 males participated in this study. 7 questions were incomplete and excluded from further analysis. From the rest 123 properly framed questions, 106(86.2%) were correct, 10(8.1%) were partially correct and 7(5.7%) incorrect with regards to the task assigned. In this study knowledge as well as application was tested in 50.4% questions, comprehension in 21.1% and application alone in 22.8%. The knowledge dimension tested was factual in 91(74%) and conceptual in 32(26%). Non-hierarchical classification showed 96(78%) convergent and 27(22%) divergent.
Conclusions: In this study majority of the participants framed direct short answer questions which reflects factual knowledge indicating their lower-level cognition. Critical thinking and procurement of higher level cognition can be attained by directing them to frame the right question especially in medical education.
Vale RD. The value of asking questions. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 2013;24:680-2.
Brill G, Yarden A. Learning biology through research papers: a stimulus for question-asking by high-school students. CBE Life Sci Educ. 2013;2:266-74.
Tofade T, Elsner J, Haines ST. Best practice strategies for effective use of questions as a teaching tool. Am J Pharm Educ. 2013;77(7):155.
Long M, Blankenburg R, Butani L. Questioning as a Teaching Tool. Pediatrics. 2015:135(3):406-8.
Philips N, Duke M. The questioning skills of clinical teachers and preceptors: a comparative study. J Adv Nurs. 2001;33(4):523-9.
Bloom BS. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals: Handbook 1: Cognitive Domain. New York: David McKay Co Inc; 1956.
Ciardiello AV. Did you ask a good question today? Alternative cognitive and metacognitive strategies. J Adolesc Adukt Lit. 1998;42(3):210-9.
Katzung BG, Masters SB, Trevor AJ. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. 12th Ed. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill; 2009.
Vinod KV, Arun K, Dutta TK. Dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome: A rare life threatening complication of dapsone therapy. J Pharmacol Pharmacother. 2013;4(2):158-60.
Dreyfus SE. The Five-Stage Model of Adult Skill Acquisition. Bulletein of Sci Tech Soc. 2004;24(3):177-81.
Carraccio CL, Benson BJ, Nixon LJ, Derstine PL. From the educational bench to the clinical bedside: Translating the Dreyfus developmental model to the learning of clinical skills. Acad Med. 2008;83(8):761-7.
Webber RH. Structured short answer questions: An alternative examination method. Med Educ. 1992;26(1):58-62.
Palappallil DS, Gangadhar R. Effectiveness of Revised Pharmacology Record Books as a Teaching-Learning Method for Second Year Medical Students. J Clin Diagn Res. 2016;10(1):FC05-FC08.
Palappallil DS, Sushama J, Ramnath SN. Effectiveness of modified seminars as a teaching-learning method in pharmacology. Int J Appl Basic Med Res. 2016;6(3):195-200.
Reiner CM, Bothell TW, Sudweeks RR, Wood B. Preparing Effective Essay Questions. A Self-directed Workbook for Educators. New Forums Press; 2002. Available at: https://testing.byu.edu/handbooks/WritingEffectiveEssayQuestions.pdf Last accessed on 12/03/2017.
Anderson LW, Krathwohl DR, Airasian PW. A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, And Assessing: A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, 2nd Ed, abridged. Boston, MA: Pearson Allyn & Bacon; 2001.
Saeed T, Khan S, Ahmed A, Gul R, Cassum S, Parpio Y. Development of student’s critical thinking: the educator’s ability to use questioning skills in baccalaureate programmes in nursing in Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc. 2012;63(3):200-3.
Profetto-McGrath J, Smith KB, Day RA, Yonge O. The questioning skills of tutors and students in a context based baccalaureate nursing program. Nurse Education Today. 2004;24:363-72.