DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20180096

The hypolipidemic activity of ethanolic extract of seed kernel of Caesalpinia bonducella fleming on serum lipids and atherogenesis in albino rats fed with high fat diet

Gayatri Sarma, Swarnamoni Das

Abstract


Background: An increase in the incidence and prevalence of hyperlipidemia in India has led to an increased demand for drugs with a lipid lowering potential. Thus, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the hypolipidemic activity of ethanolic extract of seed kernel of Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming (EESKCB) in albino rats fed with high fat diet.

Methods: The extract was daily administered to healthy adult albino rats of either sex, fed with high fat diet for a period of 60 days. At the end of 60 days, i.e. on the 61st day, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol, serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, the body weights of the rats and the serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and catalase were estimated. Phytochemical analysis of the plant extract was also carried out. For statistical analysis, the methods employed were One-way ANOVA, Dunnett’s multiple comparison test and Student’s ‘t’ test (Paired). Values of p < 0.05 were considered significant.

Results: The test drug brought about significant (p<0.05) decrease in the raised levels of all the lipid parameters except the High density lipoprotein cholesterol. There was also a significant (p<0.05) increase in the serum levels of catalase and a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the serum levels of MDA in the test drug treated group. The test drug also significantly (p<0.05) inhibited the rise in body weights of the rats.

Conclusions: From this study, it can be said that the seed kernel of Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming has significant hypolipidemic activity. 


Keywords


Caesalpinia bonducella, Ethanolic extract, High fat diet, Hyperlipidemia, Hypolipidemic effect

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ghule BV, Ghante MH, Saoji AN, Yeole PG. Hypolipidemic and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of LageneriaSiceraria (Mol.) Fruit Extracts. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 2006 Nov;44:905-9.

Nirosha K, Divya M, Vamsi S, Sadiq M. A Review On Hyperlipidemia. International J of Novel Trends in Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2014 Sep;4(5):81-92.

Tripathi KD. Essentials of Medical Pharmacology. 7th Ed. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd; Chapter 45, Hypolipidaemic Drugs and Plasma Expanders; 2013:634-646.

Eldalo AS, Alotaibi MN, Alenazi TO, Albogami HA, Mohamed KM. Use of Herbal Medicines in the Treatment of Obesity in Taif, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Journal of Medicines and Medical Sciences. 2017 May-Aug;5(2):149-54.

Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. Indian medicinal plants. 2nd Ed. Dehradun: International Book Distributors; Caesalpiniaceae; 1988:839-902.

Kakade NR, Pingale SS, Chaskar MG. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review of Caesalpinia bonducella. International Research J of Pharmacy. 2016;7(12):12-7.

Nairn JG. Solutions, emulsions, suspensions and extracts. In: Gennaro A, Marderosian AD, Hanson GR, Medwick T, Popovich NG, Schnaare RL, Schwartz JB, White HS, editors. Remington: the science and practice of pharmacy. 20th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2000:721-752.

Tiwari P, Kumar B, Kaur M, Kaur G, Kaur H. Phytochemical Screening and Extraction: A Review. Internationale Pharmaceutica Sciencia. 2011 Jan- Mar;1(1):98-106.

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals. France: OECD Publications; Section 4: Health Effects. Test No. 425: Acute Oral Toxicity: Up–and–Down Procedure; [cited 2017 Aug 15]; 2008:1-27. Available at: http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/environment/oecd-guidelines-for-the-testing-of-chemicals-section-4-health-effects_20745788

Muddapur UM, More S, Karekar T, Mungi H, Thakkannavar S, Savadatti N. Evaluation of acute and sub-acute toxicity effect of ethanol extract from Caesalpinia bonducella seed kernel. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2014;3(3):120-4.

Sarma G, Das S. Hypoglycemic Action of Seed Kernel of Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming In Normal and Alloxan- Induced Diabetic Albino Rats. The Internet Journal of Pharmacology. [cited 2017 Sep 27]; 2008:6(2). Available at: http://www.ispub.com/IJPHARM/6/2/9635

Shyamala MP, Venukumar MR, Latha MS. Antioxidant potential of the Syzygiumaromaticum (Gaertn.) Linn. (cloves) in rats fed with high fat diet. Indian J of Pharmacology. 2003;35:99-103.

Jain GC, Jhalani S, Agarwal S, Jain K. Hypolipidemic and antiatherosclerotic effect of Leptadeniapyro technica extract in cholesterol fed rabbits. Asian J Exp Sci. 2007;21(1):115-22.

Bhardwaj LK, Chandrul KK, Sharma US. Evaluation of anthelmintic activity of Caesalpinia crista linn. Seed extracts. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2016;5(2):976-82.

Ghosh MN. Fundamentals of experimental pharmacology. 6th ed. Kolkata: Hilton and Company. Chapter 30, Toxicity testing; 2015:171-178.

Ghosh MN. Fundamentals of experimental pharmacology. 6th ed. Kolkata: Hilton and Company. Chapter 2, Some standard techniques; 2015:14-17.

Choi HK, Won EK, Jang YP, Choung SY. Antiobesity Effect of Codonopsislanceolatain High-Calorie/High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Rats. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine; 2013:1-9. Available at: https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2013/210297/http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/210297

Allain CC, Poon LS, Chan CG, Richmond W, Fu PC. Enzymatic determination of total serum cholesterol. Clin Chem. 1974;20(4):470-5.

Fossati P, Prencipe L. Serum triglycerides determined colorimetrically with an enzyme that produce hydrogen peroxide. Clin Chem. 1982 Oct 1;28(10):2077-80.

Izzo C, Grillo F, Murador E. Improved method for determination of high–density-lipoprotein cholesterol I.Isolation of high-density lipoproteins by use of polyethylene glycol 6000. Clin Chem. 1981;27(3):371-4.

Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low–density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem. 1972;18(6):499-502.

Schulpis K, Karikas GA. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride distribution in 7767 School-aged Greek children. Paediatrics. 1998 May;101(5):861-4.

Beers RF, Sizer IW. A spectrophotographic method for measuring the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide by catalase. J Biol Chem. 1952;195:133-40.

Satoh K. Serum lipid peroxide in cerebrovascular disorders determined by a new colorimetric method. Clinica Chimica Acta. 1978 Nov 15;90(1):37-43.

Jurgonski A, Juskiewicz J, Zdunczyk Z. A High-Fat Diet Differentially Affects the Gut Metabolism andBlood Lipids of Rats Depending on the Type of Dietary Fatand Carbohydrate. Nutrients. 2014;6:616-26.

Castelli WP. Lipids, risk factors and ischaemic heart disease. Atheroslerosis. 1996;124:S1-9.

Ikewuchi CJ, Ikewuchi CC. Alteration of Plasma Lipid Profile and Atherogenic Indices of Cholesterol Loaded Rats by Tridax Procumbens Linn: Implications for the Management of Obesity and Cardiovascular Diseases. Biokemistri. 2009 Dec;21(2):95-9.

Sharma HL, Sharma KK. Sharma and Sharma’s Principles of Pharmacology. 3rd ed. New Delhi: Paras Medical Publisher; Chapter 23, Drug Therapy of Dyslipidaemia; 2017:328-343.

Theriault A, Wang Q, Van Iderstine SC, Chen B, Franke AA, Adeli K. Modulation of hepatic lipoprotein synthesis and secretion by taxifolin, a plant flavonoid. Journal of Lipid Research. 2000;41:1969-79.

Wilcox LJ, Borradaile NM, de Dreu LE, Huff MW. Secretion of hepatocyte apo B is inhibited by the flavonoids, naringenin and hesperetin, via reduced activity and expression of ACAT 2 and MTP. Journal of Lipid Research. 2001;42:725-34.

Kumarappan CT, Rao TN, Mandal SC. Polyphenolic extract of Ischnocarpus frustescens modifies hyperlipidemia status in diabetic rats. Journal of Cell and Molecular Biology. 2007;6(2):175-87.

Ya-Mei Y, Chien-Hsi W, Yueh-He T, Chingmin ET, Weng-Cheng C. Antioxidative and hypolipidemic effects of Barley leaf essence in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis. Jpn J Pharmacol. 2002;89:142-8.

Kesh SB, Sarkar D, Manna K. High-Fat Diet-Induced Oxidative Stress and its impact on metabolic Syndrome: A Review. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 2016;9(1):47-52.

Ohara Y, Peterson TE, Harrison DG. Hypercholesterolemia Increases Endothelial Superoxide Anion Production. The J of Clinical Investigation, Inc. 1993 Jun;91:2546-51.

Aminzadeh MA, Reisman SA, Vaziri ND, Khazaeli M, Yuan J, Meyer CJ. The synthetic triterpenoid RTA dh404 (CDDOdhTFEA)restores Nrf2 activity and attenuates oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis in ratswith chronic kidney disease. Xenobiotica. 2014;44(6):570-8.

Backhed F, Ding H, Wang T, Hooper LV, Koh GY, Nagy A, et al. The gut microbiota as an environmental factor that regulates fat storage. PNAS. 2004 Nov;101(44):15718-23.